IELTS Listening Practice 96

 
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Questions 31-38

Complete the notes below.  

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Archaeology

Definitions:

*Archaeology = study of how humans lived in the past

*Excavate = to discover what was left by people in the past

Archaeologists:

Archaeologists must: record, draw and objects they find. They may work on land or

Archaeologists know where to look because council must  of sites and Finds.

Desk based assessments:

Desk based assessments involve collecting data from databases, journals, books and

Dating methods:

* Radiocarbon — measures decay rate of Carbon 14 and converts it to the passage of

* Dendrochronology — tree ring growth patterns used to work out

Questions 39-40

Complete the sentences below.  

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Before planning laws, houses often fell or burned down and new ones were built

Pompeii is an example of a natural disaster   a city under and rubble.

 
This listening practice simulates the fourth section of the IELTS Listening test. Listen to the audio and answer questions 31-40.

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  • library_books Audio Script

    (Section 4: You will hear a talk on the topic of archaeology. First, you will have some time to look at questions 31 to 40 [20 seconds]. Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.)

    L= Lecturer

    Good morning, and welcome to today’s introductory lecture on archaeology. I hope you have all done the preparatory reading. If you have any questions, do save them until the end of the lecture and I will try to answer them then. Now, we’ll start a few definition and explanations as to what archaeology is, and what archaeologists do.

    In short, archaeology is the study of how humans lived and interacted with their environments in the past. Many aspects of archaeology overlap with other subjects such as history, geology, science and sociology. To understand the evidence for human activities in the past, archaeologists have to ‘excavate’, or dig to uncover the buildings, rubbish, burials and anything else that may have been left by people in the past.

    The excavations that archaeologists do are carefully planned – it’s not just digging big holes! Everything they find is painstakingly recorded, drawn and photographed. Once the excavation has finished, all the records, drawings and photographs are examined along with the objects that have been uncovered, and archaeologists research what has happened on that site over time.

    By the way, archaeologists don’t just work on land – there are also underwater archaeologists working all over the world on sites that have been sunk – shipwrecks - or covered by the sea as water levels have changed.

    You may be wondering how archaeologists know where to look if they can’t see what’s under the ground. In big cities like London, people have been changing the landscape for thousands of years. In the past few hundred years, London has undergone a transformation from a small compact city with surrounding hamlets and villages, to a vast sprawling urban conglomeration. It is likely that there is archaeology to be found in most areas of the modern city. But how do archaeologists know this?

    Every Borough Council in London has to keep records of where archaeological sites or stray finds of ancient objects have been found in the past. This is known as the Historic Environment Record, or HER, and is also known as a ‘Sites and Monuments Record’. Archaeologists in urban areas first start to find out if a site a developer plans to build on contains archaeology by looking at the HER.

    Desk based assessments are then written by looking at the evidence for previous archaeology in the area, through local and national databases, archaeological journals, local history books, old maps etc. to find out what kind of geology lies beneath any archaeology on site, and any other work that may have been done on site that would indicate that archaeology survives underground.

    After the desk based assessment is completed, the archaeologists undertake an evaluation – a sort of mini-excavation – to see if the findings from the desk based assessment are accurate.

    There are many methods that archaeologists can use to date the past. The most common scientific methods are radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology.

    Radiocarbon dating uses the rate decay of a naturally occurring isotope called Carbon 14 to date any material or objects from the past that contained carbon. Carbon 14 decays at a known rate, and this can be measured and converted to the passage of time.

    Dendrochronology uses tree ring growth patterns to establish dates. Each year, a tree adds another growth ring, and these are counted and dated using a computer application that records known tree ring growth patterns. This means that wood used for construction, boats etc can be dated accurately – sometimes even to the season in which they were cut down.

    Over time, evidence from the past becomes buried under dirt, rubbish, rotting vegetation and soil. Before modern rubbish collection and landfill sites, rubbish was buried near to your house, sometimes after laying around above ground for quite a while. Planning laws did not exist, and shoddy building techniques were common – houses often fell down. Houses built of wood burnt down easily and sometimes rotted in the damp climate of Britain. Often these buildings were left to decay, or were pulled down and houses built on top.

    Sometimes things get buried because of sudden changes in the landscape such as flooding, volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. Pompeii is an example of how quickly things can be buried. Mount Vesuvius erupted over two days in August AD 79, burying the wealthy Roman city of Herculaneum and neighbouring Pompeii under piles of ash and rubble that preserved the archaeology.

    To get at the archaeological evidence, archaeologists dig through these layers of built-up soil and dirt to try to understand the processes through which the layers were built up over time, and to find any artefacts buried within the layers.

        

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Listening Script Vocabulary
Some mobile devices restrict access to volume control

(Section 4: You will hear a talk on the topic of archaeology. First, you will have some time to look at questions 31 to 40 [20 seconds]. Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.)

L= Lecturer

Good morning, and welcome to today’s introductory lecture on archaeology. I hope you have all done the preparatory reading. If you have any questions, do save them until the end of the lecture and I will try to answer them then. Now, we’ll start a few definition and explanations as to what archaeology is, and what archaeologists do.

In short, archaeology is the study of how humans lived and interacted with their environments in the past. Many aspects of archaeology overlap with other subjects such as history, geology, science and sociology. To understand the evidence for human activities in the past, archaeologists have to ‘excavate’, or dig to uncover the buildings, rubbish, burials and anything else that may have been left by people in the past.

The excavations that archaeologists do are carefully planned – it’s not just digging big holes! Everything they find is painstakingly recorded, drawn and photographed. Once the excavation has finished, all the records, drawings and photographs are examined along with the objects that have been uncovered, and archaeologists research what has happened on that site over time.

By the way, archaeologists don’t just work on land – there are also underwater archaeologists working all over the world on sites that have been sunk – shipwrecks - or covered by the sea as water levels have changed.

You may be wondering how archaeologists know where to look if they can’t see what’s under the ground. In big cities like London, people have been changing the landscape for thousands of years. In the past few hundred years, London has undergone a transformation from a small compact city with surrounding hamlets and villages, to a vast sprawling urban conglomeration. It is likely that there is archaeology to be found in most areas of the modern city. But how do archaeologists know this?

Every Borough Council in London has to keep records of where archaeological sites or stray finds of ancient objects have been found in the past. This is known as the Historic Environment Record, or HER, and is also known as a ‘Sites and Monuments Record’. Archaeologists in urban areas first start to find out if a site a developer plans to build on contains archaeology by looking at the HER.

Desk based assessments are then written by looking at the evidence for previous archaeology in the area, through local and national databases, archaeological journals, local history books, old maps etc. to find out what kind of geology lies beneath any archaeology on site, and any other work that may have been done on site that would indicate that archaeology survives underground.

After the desk based assessment is completed, the archaeologists undertake an evaluation – a sort of mini-excavation – to see if the findings from the desk based assessment are accurate.

There are many methods that archaeologists can use to date the past. The most common scientific methods are radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology.

Radiocarbon dating uses the rate decay of a naturally occurring isotope called Carbon 14 to date any material or objects from the past that contained carbon. Carbon 14 decays at a known rate, and this can be measured and converted to the passage of time.

Dendrochronology uses tree ring growth patterns to establish dates. Each year, a tree adds another growth ring, and these are counted and dated using a computer application that records known tree ring growth patterns. This means that wood used for construction, boats etc can be dated accurately – sometimes even to the season in which they were cut down.

Over time, evidence from the past becomes buried under dirt, rubbish, rotting vegetation and soil. Before modern rubbish collection and landfill sites, rubbish was buried near to your house, sometimes after laying around above ground for quite a while. Planning laws did not exist, and shoddy building techniques were common – houses often fell down. Houses built of wood burnt down easily and sometimes rotted in the damp climate of Britain. Often these buildings were left to decay, or were pulled down and houses built on top.

Sometimes things get buried because of sudden changes in the landscape such as flooding, volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. Pompeii is an example of how quickly things can be buried. Mount Vesuvius erupted over two days in August AD 79, burying the wealthy Roman city of Herculaneum and neighbouring Pompeii under piles of ash and rubble that preserved the archaeology.

To get at the archaeological evidence, archaeologists dig through these layers of built-up soil and dirt to try to understand the processes through which the layers were built up over time, and to find any artefacts buried within the layers.

    

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