IELTS® Academic Reading Practice 4

close Filter
search
 
schedule First Time: 0 min 0 secs
replay Retake Test
  • Your Score: 0 / 0
schedule20:00
  • help Learn how to HIGHLIGHT & ADD NOTES
    1. HOLD LEFT CLICK
    2. DRAG MOUSE OVER TEXT
    3. RIGHT CLICK SELECTED TEXT

Reflective Teaching

Section A

Training of teachers has emerging global trends in education. The quality of education depends on the quality of teachers and teaching. The way teachers are trained is an important aspect to improve quality. The complexity of teaching requires teachers to question their practices for their own professional development in order to improve and to increase learner performance. Reflective practice, the ability to reflect on an action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning,  has become a focus of interest and a powerful movement in teacher education. Reflection simply means thinking about something,” but for some, it is a well-defined and crafted practice that carries very specific meaning and associated action. Reflective teaching, at a very general level involves ‘thinking about one’s teaching’. It is a process where teachers think over their teaching practices, analyze how something was taught and how the practice might be improved or changed for better learning outcomes.

Section B

Coaching and peer involvement are two aspects of reflective practices seen most often at the pre-service level. In a 1993 study on how student teachers develop the skills necessary for reflective teaching during their field experiences, Ojanen explores the role of the teacher educator as a coach. Teacher educators can most effectively coach student teachers in reflective practice by using students' personal histories and small and large-group discussions about their experiences to help students reflect upon and improve their practices. Kettle and Sellars (1996) studied the development of third- year teaching students. They analyzed the students' reflective writings and interviewed them extensively about their reflective practices. They found that the use of peer reflective groups encouraged student teachers to challenge existing theories and their own preconceived views of teaching while modeling for them a collaborative style of professional development that would be useful throughout their teaching careers.

Section C

The desirability of reflective practice in teaching is assumed in the literature — that it is good to be a reflective teacher. However, much of the literature is about reflection in student teachers. Sometimes it is difficult to dissociate the literature that concerns the development of reflective student teachers from that of reflective practising teachers, and as these two groups are substantially different in their likely uses of reflection.

Section D

Educators T. Wildman and J. Niles (1987) describe a scheme for developing reflective practice in experienced teachers. This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching. They were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish - a subject on which there was little guidance in the literature. They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practising teachers over several years. They were concerned that many would be drawn to these new, refreshing conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge. Reflection on a complex task such as teaching is not easy. The teachers were taken through a programme of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting on specific issues in a supported, and later in in dependent manner.

Section E

Wildman and Niles observed that systematic reflection on teaching required a sound ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner. They describe the initial understanding of the teachers with whom they were working as being “utilitarian … and not rich or detailed enough to drive systematic reflection.” Teachers rarely have the time or opportunities to view their own or the teaching of others in an objective manner. Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers to evaluate events rather than review the contributory factors in a considered manner by, in effect, standing outside the situation. Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central. This process took time and patience and effective trainers. The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.

Section F

Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: “Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.”

Section G

The work of Wildman and Niles suggests the importance of recognizing some of the difficulties of instituting reflective practice. Others have noted this, making a similar point about the teaching profession’s cultural inhibitions about reflective practice. Zeichner and Liston (1987) point out the inconsistency between the role of the teacher as a (reflective) professional decision maker and the more usual role of the teacher as a technician, putting into their ideas into practice. More basic than the cultural issues is the matter of motivation. Becoming a reflective practitioner requires extra work  and has only vaguely defined goals with, perhaps, little initially perceivable reward and the threat of vulnerability. Few have directly questioned what might lead a teacher to want to become reflective. Apparently, the most obvious reason for teachers to work toward reflective practice is that teacher educators think it is a good thing. There appear to be many unexplored matters about the motivation to reflect – for example, the value of externally motivated reflection as opposed to that of teachers who might reflect by habit.

Here they talk about student teachers which are college/university students coaching students.
Here they are talking about the lack of time and later discuss the amount of time required for proper reflection.
The main discussion here is about how teachers need help from outside sources.



This reading practice simulates one part of the IELTS Academic Reading test. You should spend about twenty minutes on it. Read the passage and answer questions 1-14.
Questions 1-7
The reading passage has seven sections, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for sections A-G from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number i-xi in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings
  1. The difficulties experienced by educators
  2. Reflection is different for teachers and students
  3. Ways in which to develop reflective learning
  4. The help required from outside sources
  5. Some of the doubts expressed by educators
  6. The negative effects of reflective learning
  7. How contemplation helps make for better learning
  8. The usefulness of working with your fellow students
  9. Examples of reflective learning in fiction
  10. How reflective learning is helping students pass exams
  11. Research carried out into the amount of time that should go into reflection

1. Section A

2. Section B

3. Section C

4. Section D

5. Section E

6. Section F

7. Section G

Questions 8-9
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 8-9 on your answer sheet.

8. It was believed that reflection could help teachers…

9. What did the teachers working with Wildman and Niles often fail to do when they attempted to practice reflection?

Questions 10-14
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage? In boxes 10-14 on your answer sheet, write

YES   if the statement reflects the claims of the writer
NO   if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN   if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

10. The experimental strategy involved having teachers record in writing their reflections about teaching.

11. Wildman and Niles worried that the teachers they were working with might feel that the concepts of teacher reflection were so abstract that they could not be applied.

12. Wildman and Niles identified three principles that teachers can use to help themselves cope with problems that may arise as a result of reflection.

13. Whether teachers can overcome the difficulties involved in reflection may depend on the nature and intensity of their motivation to reflect.

14. Many aspects of the motivation to reflect have not been studied, including the comparative benefits of externally motivated and habitual reflection among teachers.




Answer Sheet
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
N/A
16
N/A
17
N/A
18
N/A
19
N/A
20
N/A
21
N/A
22
N/A
23
N/A
24
N/A
25
N/A
26
N/A
27
N/A
28
N/A
29
N/A
30
N/A
31
N/A
32
N/A
33
N/A
34
N/A
35
N/A
36
N/A
37
N/A
38
N/A
39
N/A
40
N/A


Reading Passage Vocabulary
Reflective Teaching


Section A

Training of teachers has emerging global trends in education. The quality of education depends on the quality of teachers and teaching. The way teachers are trained is an important aspect to improve quality. The complexity of teaching requires teachers to question their practices for their own professional development in order to improve and to increase learner performance. Reflective practice, the ability to reflect on an action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning,  has become a focus of interest and a powerful movement in teacher education. Reflection simply means thinking about something,” but for some, it is a well-defined and crafted practice that carries very specific meaning and associated action. Reflective teaching, at a very general level involves ‘thinking about one’s teaching’. It is a process where teachers think over their teaching practices, analyze how something was taught and how the practice might be improved or changed for better learning outcomes.

Section B

Coaching and peer involvement are two aspects of reflective practices seen most often at the pre-service level. In a 1993 study on how student teachers develop the skills necessary for reflective teaching during their field experiences, Ojanen explores the role of the teacher educator as a coach. Teacher educators can most effectively coach student teachers in reflective practice by using students' personal histories and small and large-group discussions about their experiences to help students reflect upon and improve their practices. Kettle and Sellars (1996) studied the development of third- year teaching students. They analyzed the students' reflective writings and interviewed them extensively about their reflective practices. They found that the use of peer reflective groups encouraged student teachers to challenge existing theories and their own preconceived views of teaching while modeling for them a collaborative style of professional development that would be useful throughout their teaching careers.

Section C

The desirability of reflective practice in teaching is assumed in the literature — that it is good to be a reflective teacher. However, much of the literature is about reflection in student teachers. Sometimes it is difficult to dissociate the literature that concerns the development of reflective student teachers from that of reflective practising teachers, and as these two groups are substantially different in their likely uses of reflection.

Section D

Educators T. Wildman and J. Niles (1987) describe a scheme for developing reflective practice in experienced teachers. This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching. They were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish - a subject on which there was little guidance in the literature. They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practising teachers over several years. They were concerned that many would be drawn to these new, refreshing conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge. Reflection on a complex task such as teaching is not easy. The teachers were taken through a programme of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting on specific issues in a supported, and later in in dependent manner.

Section E

Wildman and Niles observed that systematic reflection on teaching required a sound ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner. They describe the initial understanding of the teachers with whom they were working as being “utilitarian … and not rich or detailed enough to drive systematic reflection.” Teachers rarely have the time or opportunities to view their own or the teaching of others in an objective manner. Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers to evaluate events rather than review the contributory factors in a considered manner by, in effect, standing outside the situation. Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central. This process took time and patience and effective trainers. The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.

Section F

Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: “Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.”

Section G

The work of Wildman and Niles suggests the importance of recognizing some of the difficulties of instituting reflective practice. Others have noted this, making a similar point about the teaching profession’s cultural inhibitions about reflective practice. Zeichner and Liston (1987) point out the inconsistency between the role of the teacher as a (reflective) professional decision maker and the more usual role of the teacher as a technician, putting into their ideas into practice. More basic than the cultural issues is the matter of motivation. Becoming a reflective practitioner requires extra work  and has only vaguely defined goals with, perhaps, little initially perceivable reward and the threat of vulnerability. Few have directly questioned what might lead a teacher to want to become reflective. Apparently, the most obvious reason for teachers to work toward reflective practice is that teacher educators think it is a good thing. There appear to be many unexplored matters about the motivation to reflect – for example, the value of externally motivated reflection as opposed to that of teachers who might reflect by habit.

Here they talk about student teachers which are college/university students coaching students.
Here they are talking about the lack of time and later discuss the amount of time required for proper reflection.
The main discussion here is about how teachers need help from outside sources.
 
IELTS Academic Reading Tips for Success
These are general tips that will appear on all reading questions.

Tips to improve your reading speed
To get a high score on the IELTS reading section, you need to have a fast reading speed. To have a fast reading speed, you need to improve your vocabulary and practice dissecting sentences. One strategy to dissect a sentence is to look for the subject and verb of the sentence. Finding the subject and verb will help you better understand the main idea of said sentence. Keep in mind, a common feature of a IELTS reading passage is to join strings of ideas to form long compound sentences. This produces large chunks that students have a hard time absorbing. Do not get overwhelmed by its length, just look for the subject and verb, the rest of the ideas will flow.


Keep in mind, having a slow reading speed makes skimming or scanning a reading passage more difficult. The process of quickly skimming through a reading passage for specific keywords or main ideas is a requirement for you to employ successful reading strategies to improve your IELTS reading score. In other words, skimming and scanning are critical skills to ensure you complete all questions in the allotted time frame.
IELTS Reading Strategies
Once you can read and comprehend a passage with a rate of, at least, 220 words per minute, you'll be ready to start implementing our strategies. All too often, students spend too much time reading the passages and not enough time answering the questions. Here is a step by step guide for tackling the reading section.

  1. Step 1: Read questions first

    One of the most common mistakes that candidates make when approaching the reading exam is reading every single word of the passages. Although you can practice for the exam by reading for pleasure, "reading blindly" (reading without any sense of what the questions will ask) will not do you any favors in the exam. Instead, it will hurt your chances for effectively managing your time and getting the best score.

    The main reason to read the questions first is because the type of question may determine what you read in the passage or how you read it. For example, some question types will call for the "skimming" technique, while others may call for the "scanning" technique.

    It is important to answer a set of questions that are of the same question type. You'll need to determine which question type you want to tackle first. A good strategy would be to start with the easier question type and move on to more difficult question types later. The Easiest question types are the ones where you spend less time reading. For example, the Matching Heading question type is an easier one because you only need to find the heading that best describes the main idea of a paragraph. An example of a difficult question type would be Identifying Information. For this question type, you'll need to read each paragraph to find out if each statement is TRUE, FALSE, or NOT GIVEN according to the passage.

    Here is a table that lists the difficulty levels for each question type. Use this table as a reference when choosing which question type you want to tackle first.


    Difficulty level Question Type
    Easy Sentence Completion
    Short answer
    Medium Matching Features
    Multiple choice
    Matching Headings
    Summary, Table, Flow-Chart Completion
    Difficult Matching Sentence Endings
    Matching Information
    Identifying Information (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN)
    Identifying Viewer's claims (YES/NO/NOT GIVEN)

  2. Step 2: Read for an objective

    After you've read the questions for the passage, you will be able to read for an objective. What does this mean? For example, if you come across a question that includes the year "1896", you can make a note of when this year comes up in the text, using it to answer the question later on. There are two reading techniques that will help you stay on track with reading for an objective. The first one, skimming, is best defined as reading fast in order to get the "gist", or general idea, or a passage. With this technique, you are not stopping for any unfamiliar words or looking for specific details. The second technique, scanning, is best defined as reading for specific information. With this technique, you are not reading for the overall gist, but rather, specific information. Notice how each of these techniques has a specific objective in mind. This will help you find information more quickly.

  3. Step 3: Take notes

    As you're reading for an objective, you should also be making notes on the margins of the passage, placing stars next to key information, or underlining things that you believe will help you answer the various questions. This will make it easier for you to check back when you are asked certain things in the questions. Choose whichever note-taking system is right for you - just make sure you do it!

  4. Step 4: Answer wisely

    After you've read the questions, read the passage, and have taken any appropriate notes, you you should have located the part of the text where you where you need to read carefully. Then just read carefully and think critically to determine the correct answer.

IELTS Reading Question Types
 
close
Hi, there!

Get 5 Ask-An-Instructor question on the house
by singing up to our 7 day free trial.

close
Start your 7 day free trial!