IELTS Listening Practice 52

 
Audio question: 
schedule First Time: 0 min 0 secs
replay Retake Test
  • Your Score: /
schedule07:30
Questions 31-35

Complete the notes below.  

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Seminar on ‘evergreening’

Patents cover products, and formulas.

Patents protect drugs from and allow companies to charge high prices.

Generic drugs can be made by other companies when the patent .

Generic drugs are than in-patent drugs by up to

Questions 36-40

Complete the sentences below.  

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

When a patent ends, companies often try to period.

Evergreening keeps generic drugs off the for longer.

Evergreening is achieved by creating  , dosages and combination of drugs.

New patents can be taken out even if the change to the drug is .

Critics of ‘lifecycle management’ say that benefits to the are small.

 
This listening practice simulates the fourth section of the IELTS Listening test. Listen to the audio and answer questions 31-40.

  • library_books Audio Script

    (Section 4: You will hear a talk on the topic of evergreening. First, you will have some time to look at questions 31 to 40 [20 seconds]. Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.)

    L=Lecturer

    Good afternoon and welcome to today’s lecture on the subject of ‘evergreening’ and the issues this causes with pharmaceutical companies and patients alike.

    Now, let’s begin with a little background. Pharmaceutical companies protect the drugs they have spent time and money creating with protections called patents. A patent is the legal right protecting the person or company that has created a new invention, whether that is a product, an idea or a formula. It allows the owner of the patent to take legal action against others who use his invention without his permission.

    Big pharmaceutical companies make big profits. Their useful new drugs are patented, protecting them from competition and allowing the owner of the patents to charge high prices. When the patent ends, other companies are allowed to supply the previously patented drug. These are known as generic drugs. The prices of generic drugs are much lower than the prices of in-patent drugs – it has been suggested that for widely used drugs price falls can be as much as 95%.

    On average, a patent provides protection from competition for about 14 years. But, of course, companies like monopolies and would like to extend the patent period. Over the past few decades they have used a process known as ‘evergreening’ to keep generic companies out of the market for longer.

    So, how does evergreening work? Evergreening is achieved by seeking extra patents on variations of the original drug – new forms of release, new dosages, new combinations or new forms. Pharmaceutical companies refer to this as ‘lifecycle management’. Even if the change to the previous drug is tiny, the company can make a new patent and so continue to sell the drug at a higher price.

    Brand pharmaceutical companies argue that these ‘lifecycle management’ patents provide improved health outcomes to the community and that they meet the thresholds of novelty and inventiveness required to get a new patent. Critics argue that the claimed improved health outcomes are small or non-existent.

Answer Sheet
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
N/A
12
N/A
13
N/A
14
N/A
15
N/A
16
N/A
17
N/A
18
N/A
19
N/A
20
N/A
21
N/A
22
N/A
23
N/A
24
N/A
25
N/A
26
N/A
27
N/A
28
N/A
29
N/A
30
N/A
31
N/A
32
N/A
33
N/A
34
N/A
35
N/A
36
N/A
37
N/A
38
N/A
39
N/A
40
N/A
 
Listening Script Vocabulary

(Section 4: You will hear a talk on the topic of evergreening. First, you will have some time to look at questions 31 to 40 [20 seconds]. Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.)

L=Lecturer

Good afternoon and welcome to today’s lecture on the subject of ‘evergreening’ and the issues this causes with pharmaceutical companies and patients alike.

Now, let’s begin with a little background. Pharmaceutical companies protect the drugs they have spent time and money creating with protections called patents. A patent is the legal right protecting the person or company that has created a new invention, whether that is a product, an idea or a formula. It allows the owner of the patent to take legal action against others who use his invention without his permission.

Big pharmaceutical companies make big profits. Their useful new drugs are patented, protecting them from competition and allowing the owner of the patents to charge high prices. When the patent ends, other companies are allowed to supply the previously patented drug. These are known as generic drugs. The prices of generic drugs are much lower than the prices of in-patent drugs – it has been suggested that for widely used drugs price falls can be as much as 95%.

On average, a patent provides protection from competition for about 14 years. But, of course, companies like monopolies and would like to extend the patent period. Over the past few decades they have used a process known as ‘evergreening’ to keep generic companies out of the market for longer.

So, how does evergreening work? Evergreening is achieved by seeking extra patents on variations of the original drug – new forms of release, new dosages, new combinations or new forms. Pharmaceutical companies refer to this as ‘lifecycle management’. Even if the change to the previous drug is tiny, the company can make a new patent and so continue to sell the drug at a higher price.

Brand pharmaceutical companies argue that these ‘lifecycle management’ patents provide improved health outcomes to the community and that they meet the thresholds of novelty and inventiveness required to get a new patent. Critics argue that the claimed improved health outcomes are small or non-existent.

IELTS Listening Tips for Success
These are general tips that will appear on all listening questions.

coming soon

 
close
Hi, there!

Create your free beta account to use this feature.

close
Create your free beta account