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歡迎來到TOEIC測驗指南, 在這邊你可以找到所有關於多益測驗考試的內容、考題資訊、 以及超過1000題的多益模擬練習題。 想練習多益閱讀題目的同學請瀏覽請點擊多益閱讀考題。 想練習多益廳力的同學請瀏覽請點擊多益聽力考題

多益閱讀Part 5課程 - 動詞的主、被動態

多益閱讀測驗中,最愛出現的考題就是各種時態的被動式了,每次考試大概會有1題,最多會有3題,這堂課就讓我們來分析下如何分析這樣的題型。

首先我們先必須瞭解到的是一個英文句子一定有主詞+動詞,在分析一個句子的時候我們必須先看看主詞是什麼,然後再看看動詞是什麼,通常關於主動被動的考題中,會把動詞的地方挖空,然後放在出題選項內,讓考生去選擇,如果說你對如何將主動轉成被動的文法觀念還不熟的話,那就來看看下面的解說:


簡單來說,要將主動語態變成被動語態需要:

(1) 將句中的主詞和受詞位置調換。

(2) 動詞形式變成 be 動詞+過去分詞 (p.p.)。 

(3) 在動作施做者前加上一個 by。 


Apple will discontinue iMac Pro next year.

在這句話裡,「Apple」為主詞,「iMac Pro」為受詞。


當我們用被動式來寫的話呢,句子就變成

iMac Pro will be discontinued by Apple next year.


我們發現「iMac Pro」被挪到了句首,中間連接兩者的動詞形態變成:be 動詞+過去分詞 (p.p.), Apple被挪到句尾,而且前面接了一個 by(意指「被;由」)。


通常被動式寫法我們可以省略"by+人"這邊,所以句子就變成

iMac Pro will be discontinued next year.


我們來看看下方這個題目:


多益例題:  Mr. Bently ___ by the procurement department, where he is in charge of buying supplies for the textile company.

(A) was recruited (B) is recruiting (C) to recruit (D) recruits


這句子中主詞是Mr. Bently,動詞是跟recruit有關,動詞後面接by the procurment department,Recruit的意思是"雇用" ,用法為: 公司 + recruit + 人,在這題中主詞是Mr. Bently,所以我們可以知道這句是由被動方式來寫,所以答案選(A)。


翻譯:Bently 先生被採購部聘用,負責為紡織公司採購物資。


我們在第8堂課學到五大句型的動詞,我們必須了解到並非所有五大句型的動詞都可以改成被動寫法,而且五大句型的動詞改寫成被動寫法後會有一些不同 (如果還不熟悉五大句型的動詞 請複習第8堂課) ,接下來我們就來看看這些差異性:


五大句型動詞被動態攻略

(一) 第1跟第2大句型動詞無法使用被動式,因為動詞後面沒有受詞

(二) 第345大句型中如果沒有受詞的話,就是選擇被動式當答案,如果有受詞的話,就是選擇主動式當答案

(三) 第4大句型句子中有2個受詞,因此如果其中一個受詞跑到前面當主詞,變成被動式時候後面還會剩下一個受詞

(四) 第5大句型句子中有受詞和受詞補語,因此如果變成被動式時候,受詞跑到前面當主詞,後面還會剩下受詞補語


請前往下一個單元看五大句型動詞被動寫法攻略。

五大句型動詞被動態攻略(一)

文法要點: 第1跟2大句型動詞無法使用被動式因為動詞後面沒有受詞


第1大句型:  S+V (主詞+動詞)

第2大句型: S+V+S.C. (主詞+動詞+主詞補語(N./Adj.)


第1大句型 多益常考的代表動詞:


come來, go去, leave離開, return回來, walk走, run跑, jump跳, fly飛, depart出發 起飛, land降落,

rocket =(sharply, dramatically, rapidly…),  rise =increase(急速)增加, fall跌=decrease, 減少=decline =drop下降, happen =occur發生, emerge=appear出現, disappear消失, exist存在, live住, stand站, sit 坐, lie躺, stay待, work工作


When it comes to playing PC games, handheld gaming PCs are slowly emerging as viable alternatives to big laptops.

在玩 PC 遊戲方面,掌上游戲 PC 正逐漸成為大型筆記本電腦的可行替代品。


Scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions need to essentially disappear by the middle of the century in order to avoid catastrophic climate change

科學家們一致認為,為了避免災難性的氣候變化,溫室氣體排放需要在本世紀中基本消失


A foreclosure occurs when you fall too far behind on your mortgage payments and the banks repossess your home.

當你的房貸缺了太多期沒繳而銀行收回你的房屋時,就會有房屋止贖的情形發生。


多益例題Holiday sales ___ at the fastest pace in 17 years, even as shoppers grappled with higher prices, product shortages and a raging new COVID-19 variant in the last few weeks of the season.

(A) have been grown (B) grew (C) is grown (D) grow


此題答案為 (B)grew。

翻譯:假日銷售以 17 年來最快的速度增長,儘管購物者在本季的最後幾週努力應對更高的價格、產品短缺和肆虐的新 COVID-19 變體。


五大句型動詞被動態攻略(二)

文法要點: 第3大句型句子中有1個受詞因此如果其中一個受詞跑到前面當主詞,變成被動式時候後面會沒有受詞


第3大句型: 

S+V+O (主詞+動詞+受詞)

S+V+Prep.+O(主詞+動詞+介係詞+受詞) 


主動: The procurement department recruited Mr. Bently.

被動: Mr. Bently was recruited by the procurement department.

採購部招聘了本特利先生。


主動: The customer services department deals with complaints.

被動: Complaints are dealt with by the customer services department.

客戶服務部門處理投訴。


主動: The upper management instruct employees regularly to ensure their work is of the highest quality and conforms to the regulations.

被動: Employees are instructed regularly to ensure their work is of the highest quality and conforms to the regulations.

高層管理人員定期指導員工確保他們的工作質量最高並符合規定。


主動: Due to space issues, we will hold the annual conference in the convention center this year.

被動: Due to space issues, the annual conference will be held in the convention center this year.

由於場地問題,今年我們將在會展中心舉辦年會。


多益例題: The seminar will _____ by professionals in the food service industry.

(A) attend (B) attended (C) be attended (D) be attending


此題答案為(C)。

翻譯:研討會將由食品服務行業的專業人士參加。


多益例題: Any data kept inside this file is encrypted and can only be ______ by your password.

(A) access (B) accessing (C) accessed (D) accessory


此題答案為(C)。

翻譯:保存在此文件中的任何數據都已加密,只能通過您的密碼訪問。



多益例題: Restaurants _____  for health code violations at least once a year by public health officials.

(A) inspect (B) inspecting (C) inspected (D) are inspected


此題答案為(D)。

翻譯:公共衛生官員每年至少對餐館進行一次違反健康法規的檢查。

五大句型動詞被動態攻略(三)

文法要點: 第4大句型句子中有2個受詞因此如果其中一個受詞跑到前面當主詞,變成被動式時候後面還會剩下一個受詞


第4大句型: 

S+V+ I.O.+ D.O. (主詞+動詞+間接受詞+直接受詞) 

S+V+ D.O.+ prep.+ I.O. (主詞+動詞+直接受詞+介係詞+間接受詞)


主動: OPH Corporation offered every employee an opportunity for promotion and pay raise on a yearly basis.

被動: Every employee is offered an opportunity for promotion and pay raise on a yearly basis.

OPH Corporation 每年為每位員工提供晉升和加薪的機會。

 

主動: The unions assured the new owners of the workers' loyalty to the company. 

被動: The new owners are assured of the workers' loyalty to the company by the union.

工會向新老闆保證工人對公司的忠誠。 


主動: The consultant advised the director that continued support of the AI project might lead to significant financial loss and little profit.

被動: The director was advised that continued support of the AI project might lead to significant financial loss and little profit.

顧問告知主管,繼續支持人工智能項目可能會導致重大的財務損失和微薄的利潤。 


主動: We should notify the customers that the requested item is currently out of stock.

被動: The customers are notified that the requested item is currently out of stock.

我們應該通知客戶所要求的商品目前缺貨。 


主動: Mr.Smith will inform us of any new changes that he will make to the proposal.

被動: We will be informed of any new changes that Mr.Smith will make to the proposal.

史密斯先生將通知我們他將對提案進行的任何新更改。


多益例題: Some service fees _______ for withdrawing money from the account.

(A) will be charging (B) have charged (C) charge (D) will be charged


這句子中主詞是Some service fees,動詞是chage, Charge的意思是"收取費用" ,用法為: 

  • 收取費用的人事物 + charge+ 人 + 費用 + for +   
  • 收取費用的人事物 + charge + 費用 + for + 

例如: "The museum charges me $20 for admission" or "The museum charges $20 for admission"


在這題中主詞是 Some service fees,所以我們可以知道這句是由被動方式來寫,所以答案選(D)


如果用主動方式來寫的話,句子可以寫成像這樣:

The bank will charge clients service fees for withdrawing money from the account.


翻譯:客戶從賬戶取款時會被收取一些服務費。


多益例題: Workers _____ that whoever exits the warehouse last needs to lock the main entrance door and turn on the alarm system.

(A) reminded (B) are reminded (C) reminding (D) will remind


此題答案為(B)。

翻譯:提醒工人,最後離開倉庫的人需要鎖上正門並打開警報系統。


五大句型動詞被動態攻略(四)

文法要點: 第5大句型句子中有受詞和受詞補語因此如果成被動式時候受詞跑到前面當主詞後面還會剩下受詞補語


第5大句型: 

S+V +O + O.C. (主詞+動詞+受詞+受詞補語(N./Adj.)


主動: We should keep data confidential since it contains valuable information.

被動: Data should be kept confidential since it contains valuable information.

我們應該對數據保密,因為它含有價值的信息。


主動: Many customers find our new shampoo bottles appealing.

被動: Our new shampoo bottles are found appealing by our customers.

許多客戶認為我們的新洗髮水瓶很有吸引力。


主動: The HR manager encourages new employees to actively participate in the weekly training workshop.

被動: New employees are encouraged to actively participate in the weekly training workshop.

人力資源經理鼓勵新員工積極參加每週的培訓研討會。


主動: Most of my friends considered the movie great.

被動: The movie was considered great by most of my friends.

我大多數的朋友認為那部電影是好看的。


多益例題: The growing middle class in India ____ as an emerging market for many multinational corporations, especially in the entertainment industries.

(A) has viewed (B) view (C) is viewed (D) have viewed


此題答案為(C)。

翻譯:印度不斷壯大的中產階級被許多跨國公司視為新興市場,尤其是在娛樂行業。


多益例題: Laboratory staff members are _____ to wear protective eyewear, gloves, and helmets at all times.

(A) advice (B) advised (C) advise (D) advising


此題答案為(B)。

翻譯:建議實驗室工作人員始終佩戴防護眼鏡、手套和頭盔。

常考的被動式片語

Be pleased with / Be satisfied with / Be delighted with /Be dissatisfied with

Be equipped with / Be associated with / Be related to

Be crowded with / Be filled with

Be recognized for / Be acknowledged for

Be interested in / Be involved in / Be engaged in

Be disappointed at / Be surprised at / Be shocked at / Be astonished at

Be worried about / Be excited about

Be scheduled to / Be supposed to /Be expected to