IELTS® General Reading Practice 3

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People who choose to study psychology have a variety of choices when it comes to long-term careers. A bachelor's degree in psychology can provide a good foundation for a range of different professions. Statistics show that many students who graduate with a bachelor's degree in the subject have no intention of actually becoming psychologists. 

Professionals who hold a PhD in psychology have far more options open to them than graduates with a bachelor's or a master's degree. In fact, completing doctoral level training is often a requirement in order to be officially recognized as a 'psychologist.' Higher salaries and improved career prospects are also an incentive.

In general, anyone wishing to continue a career in psychology at a 4-year institution of higher education must earn a doctoral degree in psychology. In most areas of psychology, this translates into earning a PhD in a relevant area of psychology, such as family counseling or trauma. Some PhD candidates choose applied psychology whereas others opt to focus on research. Depending on the amount of training received, or the desired specialty of a candidate, an individual could be anything from a biological psychologist to a clinical psychologist in an academic setting.

The term 'PhD' refers to a doctor of philosophy degree, but 'philosophy' is a broad term. In this case, 'philosophy' refers to diverse disciplinary perspectives that would be grouped together in a traditional college of liberal arts and sciences.

Although the requirements to earn a PhD vary depending on the country, individuals obtaining this degree can expect to complete a dissertation, which is a thorough research paper describing experiments or studies done as part of the doctoral training of a candidate. In order for the degree to be conferred, a dissertation usually must be defended before a committee of expert reviewers. However, this requirement varies depending on the country.

Once someone earns a PhD, the individual can begin seeking out a faculty appointment at a college or university. This usually involves multi-tasking duties and splitting time between teaching, research, and service to the institution and profession. This is one reason why professors relocate to different institutions in a short amount of time; they must find the best personal fit among the various academic environments that are available to them

Often times, schools offer more courses in psychology than their full-time faculty can handle. In these cases, it is not uncommon to find adjunct faculty members or instructors who take on teaching various courses. Although adjunct faculty members have the necessary training to teach in the university setting, they often hold primary careers outside of the academic setting and utilize their teaching experiences as secondary careers. Although rare, these faculty members may not hold the doctoral degree required by most accredited 4-year institutions and use these opportunities to gain useful experience in teaching.  

As many 2-year colleges are coming to fruition, many of them are in need of faculty to teach their psychology courses. Although a qualification at this level will not lead directly to employment in the field, it can provide a solid foundation in the subject and a stepping stone to more advanced studies. These types of colleges are often in need of faculty to teach their psychology courses. In general, many of the people who pursue careers at these institutions hold at least a master's degree in psychology, although some PhDs choose to develop careers at these institutions as well.

Recent PhD graduates may also choose to start an independent career, establishing an office and offering therapy sessions to the public. Usually, these individuals completed job shadowing or internships with an experienced psychologist during their academic career, efficiently preparing them for best practices when choosing to work in this setting. Although this option is very appealing to many newly qualified psychologists, some find it difficult to manage the business side of the practice. While they may have all the skills required to be a good clinician, they may lack the necessary financial and marketing acumen.

It is not uncommon for individuals who have just earned their PhD to enroll in postdoctoral training programs. These programs assist candidates in obtaining experience before going on to serve as faculty at the given institution. Those interested in scientific psychology will usually complete a few postdoctoral programs, allowing them to develop research programs and broaden their research skills under the helpful supervision of other professors in the psychology field. 

In terms of what the future holds, it is widely predicted that the demand for psychological services in schools, hospitals and health centers will increase dramatically in the next ten years. Industrial-organizational psychologists, who focus on behavior in the workplace, are expected to be particularly sought after. In addition, aging populations in many parts of the world will require the services of psychologists specifically trained to help people face the mental and physical challenges associated with growing older.

28. B - (In most areas of psychology, this translates into earning a PhD in a relevant area of psychology, such as family counseling or trauma.) This is another way to say that obtaining a PhD in psychology usually involves studying a specific area of psychology. The other options are not stated in the text.
29. A - (In this case, 'philosophy' refers to diverse disciplinary perspectives that would be grouped together in a traditional college of liberal arts and sciences.) “Disciplinary” in this context is an adjective which means “connected to an area of study,” while “perspectives” are attitudes or points of view. Overall, “diverse disciplinary perspectives” is another way to say, “a set of principles and studies.” The other options are not stated in the text.
30. C - The definition of a “dissertation” is given in the text. (… a dissertation, which is a thorough research paper describing experiments or studies done as part of the doctoral training of a candidate.) This is another way to say, “a complete description of various experiments relating to the training a candidate has completed.” (Why not A?) There is no mention of a dissertation being optional. Although dissertations are not required in all countries, you can't choose whether you complete one or not. (Why not B?) (… a dissertation usually must be defended…) The key here is not always
31. A - (… This requirement varies depending on the country.) None of the other options appear in the text.
32. C - (This usually involves multi-tasking duties and splitting time between teaching, research, and service to the institution and profession.) This is another way to say that candidates who apply for work as full-time faculty at the university level can expect to have to divide their time between a number of different roles.
33. D - (… professors relocate to different institutions in a short amount of time; they must find the best personal fit among the various academic environments that are available to them.) This means that professors could move from one institution to another in an effort to find the academic environment that suits them best.
34. B - (Often times, schools offer more courses in psychology than their full-time faculty can handle. In these cases, it is not uncommon to find adjunct faculty members or instructors who take on teaching various courses.) This means that there are not enough full-time faculty to teach all the psychology courses, so adjunct faculty members are taken on to relieve some of the pressure. “Relieve the pressure” is another way to say, “offset the burden.”
35. A - (As many 2-year colleges are coming to fruition, many of them are in need of faculty to teach their psychology courses.) Therefore, it is true to say that the increase in the number of 2-year colleges provides more career opportunities for potential Psychology faculty. (Not just those with PhDs – or just those with master's degrees.)

36. C - (Usually, these individuals completed job shadowing or internships with an experienced psychologist during their academic career, efficiently preparing them for best practices when choosing to work in this setting.) Thus, the correct answer is that these individuals most likely completed on-the-job training with a professional.
37. postdoctoral training - The statement, 'It is not uncommon for individuals who have just earned their PhD to enroll in postdoctoral training programs.' proves this to be correct.
38. scientific psychology - The statement, 'Those interested in scientific psychology will usually complete a few postdoctoral programs…' proves this to be correct. 'Interested in' is a synonym for 'keen on'.
39. research skills - The statement, '...allowing them to develop research programs and broaden their research skills' shows that candidates will broaden (or expand) these skills.

40. supervision - The statement, '...under the helpful supervision of other professors in the psychology field.' shows that candidates are usually supervised by professors in the field.
This reading practice simulates the third section of the IELTS General Reading test. You should spend about twenty minutes on it. Read the passage(s) and answer questions 28-40.
Questions 28-36
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 28-36 on your answer sheet.

28. Psychologists who hold a PhD

29. The term 'philosophy'

30. When earning a PhD, a dissertation is

31. The requirements for completing a PhD

32. Candidates who apply for work as full-time faculty at the university level

33. Those who hold a PhD and teach in higher education

34. Adjunct faculty members are usually hired

35. The increase of 2-year colleges

36. Individuals who choose to follow a self-governing career path

Questions 37-40
Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in 37-40 on your answer sheet.

programs are popular for candidates who want more experience before committing as a professor in higher education. Additionally, candidates whom are keen on will take a few of these programs. A candidate in this type of program can expect to expand his or her . As extra assistance, individuals in these programs usually get helpful by professors in the field when crafting independent research programs.





Answer Sheet
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28
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Reading Passage Vocabulary
Futures in Psychology

People who choose to study psychology have a variety of choices when it comes to long-term careers. A bachelor's degree in psychology can provide a good foundation for a range of different professions. Statistics show that many students who graduate with a bachelor's degree in the subject have no intention of actually becoming psychologists. 

Professionals who hold a PhD in psychology have far more options open to them than graduates with a bachelor's or a master's degree. In fact, completing doctoral level training is often a requirement in order to be officially recognized as a 'psychologist.' Higher salaries and improved career prospects are also an incentive.

In general, anyone wishing to continue a career in psychology at a 4-year institution of higher education must earn a doctoral degree in psychology. In most areas of psychology, this translates into earning a PhD in a relevant area of psychology, such as family counseling or trauma. Some PhD candidates choose applied psychology whereas others opt to focus on research. Depending on the amount of training received, or the desired specialty of a candidate, an individual could be anything from a biological psychologist to a clinical psychologist in an academic setting.

The term 'PhD' refers to a doctor of philosophy degree, but 'philosophy' is a broad term. In this case, 'philosophy' refers to diverse disciplinary perspectives that would be grouped together in a traditional college of liberal arts and sciences.

Although the requirements to earn a PhD vary depending on the country, individuals obtaining this degree can expect to complete a dissertation, which is a thorough research paper describing experiments or studies done as part of the doctoral training of a candidate. In order for the degree to be conferred, a dissertation usually must be defended before a committee of expert reviewers. However, this requirement varies depending on the country.

Once someone earns a PhD, the individual can begin seeking out a faculty appointment at a college or university. This usually involves multi-tasking duties and splitting time between teaching, research, and service to the institution and profession. This is one reason why professors relocate to different institutions in a short amount of time; they must find the best personal fit among the various academic environments that are available to them

Often times, schools offer more courses in psychology than their full-time faculty can handle. In these cases, it is not uncommon to find adjunct faculty members or instructors who take on teaching various courses. Although adjunct faculty members have the necessary training to teach in the university setting, they often hold primary careers outside of the academic setting and utilize their teaching experiences as secondary careers. Although rare, these faculty members may not hold the doctoral degree required by most accredited 4-year institutions and use these opportunities to gain useful experience in teaching.  

As many 2-year colleges are coming to fruition, many of them are in need of faculty to teach their psychology courses. Although a qualification at this level will not lead directly to employment in the field, it can provide a solid foundation in the subject and a stepping stone to more advanced studies. These types of colleges are often in need of faculty to teach their psychology courses. In general, many of the people who pursue careers at these institutions hold at least a master's degree in psychology, although some PhDs choose to develop careers at these institutions as well.

Recent PhD graduates may also choose to start an independent career, establishing an office and offering therapy sessions to the public. Usually, these individuals completed job shadowing or internships with an experienced psychologist during their academic career, efficiently preparing them for best practices when choosing to work in this setting. Although this option is very appealing to many newly qualified psychologists, some find it difficult to manage the business side of the practice. While they may have all the skills required to be a good clinician, they may lack the necessary financial and marketing acumen.

It is not uncommon for individuals who have just earned their PhD to enroll in postdoctoral training programs. These programs assist candidates in obtaining experience before going on to serve as faculty at the given institution. Those interested in scientific psychology will usually complete a few postdoctoral programs, allowing them to develop research programs and broaden their research skills under the helpful supervision of other professors in the psychology field. 

In terms of what the future holds, it is widely predicted that the demand for psychological services in schools, hospitals and health centers will increase dramatically in the next ten years. Industrial-organizational psychologists, who focus on behavior in the workplace, are expected to be particularly sought after. In addition, aging populations in many parts of the world will require the services of psychologists specifically trained to help people face the mental and physical challenges associated with growing older.

28. B - (In most areas of psychology, this translates into earning a PhD in a relevant area of psychology, such as family counseling or trauma.) This is another way to say that obtaining a PhD in psychology usually involves studying a specific area of psychology. The other options are not stated in the text.
29. A - (In this case, 'philosophy' refers to diverse disciplinary perspectives that would be grouped together in a traditional college of liberal arts and sciences.) “Disciplinary” in this context is an adjective which means “connected to an area of study,” while “perspectives” are attitudes or points of view. Overall, “diverse disciplinary perspectives” is another way to say, “a set of principles and studies.” The other options are not stated in the text.
30. C - The definition of a “dissertation” is given in the text. (… a dissertation, which is a thorough research paper describing experiments or studies done as part of the doctoral training of a candidate.) This is another way to say, “a complete description of various experiments relating to the training a candidate has completed.” (Why not A?) There is no mention of a dissertation being optional. Although dissertations are not required in all countries, you can't choose whether you complete one or not. (Why not B?) (… a dissertation usually must be defended…) The key here is not always
31. A - (… This requirement varies depending on the country.) None of the other options appear in the text.
32. C - (This usually involves multi-tasking duties and splitting time between teaching, research, and service to the institution and profession.) This is another way to say that candidates who apply for work as full-time faculty at the university level can expect to have to divide their time between a number of different roles.
33. D - (… professors relocate to different institutions in a short amount of time; they must find the best personal fit among the various academic environments that are available to them.) This means that professors could move from one institution to another in an effort to find the academic environment that suits them best.
34. B - (Often times, schools offer more courses in psychology than their full-time faculty can handle. In these cases, it is not uncommon to find adjunct faculty members or instructors who take on teaching various courses.) This means that there are not enough full-time faculty to teach all the psychology courses, so adjunct faculty members are taken on to relieve some of the pressure. “Relieve the pressure” is another way to say, “offset the burden.”
35. A - (As many 2-year colleges are coming to fruition, many of them are in need of faculty to teach their psychology courses.) Therefore, it is true to say that the increase in the number of 2-year colleges provides more career opportunities for potential Psychology faculty. (Not just those with PhDs – or just those with master's degrees.)

36. C - (Usually, these individuals completed job shadowing or internships with an experienced psychologist during their academic career, efficiently preparing them for best practices when choosing to work in this setting.) Thus, the correct answer is that these individuals most likely completed on-the-job training with a professional.
37. postdoctoral training - The statement, 'It is not uncommon for individuals who have just earned their PhD to enroll in postdoctoral training programs.' proves this to be correct.
38. scientific psychology - The statement, 'Those interested in scientific psychology will usually complete a few postdoctoral programs…' proves this to be correct. 'Interested in' is a synonym for 'keen on'.
39. research skills - The statement, '...allowing them to develop research programs and broaden their research skills' shows that candidates will broaden (or expand) these skills.

40. supervision - The statement, '...under the helpful supervision of other professors in the psychology field.' shows that candidates are usually supervised by professors in the field.
 
IELTS General Reading Tips for Success
These are general tips that will appear on all reading questions.

Tips to improve your reading speed
To get a high score on the IELTS reading section, you need to have a fast reading speed. To have a fast reading speed, you need to improve your vocabulary and practice dissecting sentences. One strategy to dissect a sentence is to look for the subject and verb of the sentence. Finding the subject and verb will help you better understand the main idea of said sentence. Keep in mind, a common feature of a IELTS reading passage is to join strings of ideas to form long compound sentences. This produces large chunks that students have a hard time absorbing. Do not get overwhelmed by its length, just look for the subject and verb, the rest of the ideas will flow.

Keep in mind, having a slow reading speed makes skimming or scanning a reading passage more difficult. The process of quickly skimming through a reading passage for specific keywords or main ideas is a requirement for you to employ successful reading strategies to improve your IELTS reading score. In other words, skimming and scanning are critical skills to ensure you complete all questions in the allotted time frame.
IELTS Reading Strategies
Once you can read and comprehend a passage with a rate of, at least, 220 words per minute, you'll be ready to start implementing our strategies. All too often, students spend too much time reading the passages and not enough time answering the questions. Here is a step by step guide for tackling the reading section.

  1. Step 1: Read questions first

    One of the most common mistakes that candidates make when approaching the reading exam is reading every single word of the passages. Although you can practice for the exam by reading for pleasure, "reading blindly" (reading without any sense of what the questions will ask) will not do you any favors in the exam. Instead, it will hurt your chances for effectively managing your time and getting the best score.

    The main reason to read the questions first is because the type of question may determine what you read in the passage or how you read it. For example, some question types will call for the "skimming" technique, while others may call for the "scanning" technique.

    It is important to answer a set of questions that are of the same question type. You'll need to determine which question type you want to tackle first. A good strategy would be to start with the easier question type and move on to more difficult question types later. The Easiest question types are the ones where you spend less time reading. For example, the Matching Heading question type is an easier one because you only need to find the heading that best describes the main idea of a paragraph. An example of a difficult question type would be Identifying Information. For this question type, you'll need to read each paragraph to find out if each statement is TRUE, FALSE, or NOT GIVEN according to the passage.

    Here is a table that lists the difficulty levels for each question type. Use this table as a reference when choosing which question type you want to tackle first.

    Difficulty level Question Type
    Easy Match Headings
    Short answer
    Medium Matching Sentence Endings
    Matching Features
    Multiple choice
    Sentence Completion
    Diagram Label, Summary, Note, Table, Flow-Chart Completion
    Difficult Match Information
    Identifying Information (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN)
    Identifying Viewer's claims (YES/NO/NOT GIVEN)

  2. Step 2: Read for an objective

    After you've read the questions for the passage, you will be able to read for an objective. What does this mean? For example, if you come across a question that includes the year "1896", you can make a note of when this year comes up in the text, using it to answer the question later on. There are two reading techniques that will help you stay on track with reading for an objective. The first one, skimming, is best defined as reading fast in order to get the "gist", or general idea, or a passage. With this technique, you are not stopping for any unfamiliar words or looking for specific details. The second technique, scanning, is best defined as reading for specific information. With this technique, you are not reading for the overall gist, but rather, specific information. Notice how each of these techniques has a specific objective in mind. This will help you find information more quickly.

  3. Step 3: Take notes

    As you're reading for an objective, you should also be making notes on the margins of the passage, placing stars next to key information, or underlining things that you believe will help you answer the various questions. This will make it easier for you to check back when you are asked certain things in the questions. Choose whichever note-taking system is right for you - just make sure you do it!

  4. Step 4: Answer wisely

    After you've read the questions, read the passage, and have taken any appropriate notes, you you should have located the part of the text where you where you need to read carefully. Then just read carefully and think critically to determine the correct answer.

 
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