IELTS® Vocabulary List

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habitat keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/habi-tat/ [hh.ae1.b.ah0.t.ae2.t]

A habitat is a place where a plant or animal naturally lives. The terms ‘habitat loss (= loss of habitat)’, ‘natural habitats’, ‘wildlife habitats’ are often used. Habitation means the act of living in a place. For example, when an area has no human habitation, it means that no people live there.

Example sentences:

  • Mining and oil exploration render land unusable for habitation and causes other forms of environmental degradation by releasing toxic materials into the environment. (habitation)
  • Most endangered species are threatened by multiple factors, but habitat loss is generally viewed as the largest single cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. (habitat loss)
  • Habitat loss poses great threats to species.​
  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have deteriorated the quality of wildlife habitats.

 

habituate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ha-bit-u-ate/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Make or become accustomed or used to something

Example sentences:

  • Bears can become habituated to people very easily.

halt keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/halt/ [hh.ao1.l.t]

Definition: cause to stop

Example sentences:

  • A halt to the release of raw methane from oil and gas operations is critical to combating global warming.
  • The handful of approved treatments only provide modest and temporary relief for symptoms such as memory loss; none halt the disease's progress.

handicraft keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hand-i-craft/ [hh.ae1.n.d.iy0.k.r.ae2.f.t]

Definition: Activity involving the making of decorative domestic or other objects by hand:

Example sentences:

  • A wide range of wooden statues, ready-made garments, decorative greeting cards, handicrafts items and eateries were on display. Other handicrafts include woodcarving and basketry.

haphazardly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hap-haz-ard-ly/ [hh.ae1.f.ah0.z.er0.d.l.iy0]

Definition: In a manner lacking any obvious principle of organization

Example sentences:

  • His attire will be haphazardly thrown together, but he'll still look good.

harm keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/harm/ [hh.aa1.r.m]

The word harm can be a noun or a verb.

As a noun, it means physical or mental damage or something that causes someone or something to be hurt, broken. It can also mean something that makes one less valuable or successful, etc. The following collocations and phrases are often used

  • cause/do harm to someone or something 
  • inflict harm on someone or animals
  • suffer harm
  • do more harm than good =  make a situation worse rather than better.
  • out of harm's way = in a safe place.
  • physical harm
  • psychological/emotional harm
  • environmental harm

Common errors: Don’t say ‘give harm’ or ‘make harm’. Say do harm or cause harm.

To “cause harm to someone or something” means to physically or mentally damage someone or something. Here are example sentences:

  • Try to choose products that do the least harm to the environment.
  • Acid rains cause harm to vegetation and buildings.

To “inflict harm on someone” means to damage or injure someone and make them suffer. Here are example sentences:

  • None of us wants to inflict harm on another human being.
  • Studies have shown that individuals who enjoy or are willing to inflict harm on animals are more likely to do so to humans. 
  • Conduct disorder involves behavior that intentionally inflicts harm on others, including aggression towards other children, adults, and animals.

Example sentences using the phrase “more harm than good”:

  • The drugs he was prescribed did him more harm than good.
  • Strenuous exercise can often do more harm than good.

Example sentences using the phrase “out of harm’s way”:

  • The younger children were kept out of harm's way.
  • We fenced the yard to keep the children out of harm's way.

suffer harm

  • A child can be taken into care if he is or is likely to suffer significant harm.

physical harm

  • They were afraid that he would do some actual physical harm.

psychological/emotional harm

  • Depriving a child of love does irreparable emotional harm.

environmental harm

  • The report highlights the environmental harm caused by transporting goods around the world.

 

As a verb, it means to cause harm to someone or something. It is a transitive verb.  Here are example sentences:

  • He would never intentionally harm his children.
  • Chemicals that could harm the environment
  • The scandal has seriously harmed his reputation.
harmony keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/har-mo-ny/ [hh.aa1.r.m.ah0.n.iy0]

Harmony is the sound of things that go well together. If a band doesn’t have harmony, the won’t be successful. Harmony is also compatibility in opinion and attraction. Two examples for harmony:

  • They won the singing contest because they had the best harmony.
  • When the employees are in harmony it makes life easier for the managers.
harvest keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/har-vest/ [hh.aa1.r.v.ah0.s.t]

Definition: Collect or obtain (a resource) for future use

Example senences:

  • Plants and bacteria have been harvesting solar energy and converting it into chemical forms of energy through a process known as photosynthesis for a really long time.

 

hatch keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hatch/ [hh.ae1.ch]

When a bird hatches, it means a bird produces young from eggs by incubation.  For example:

  • The chick hatches after a month's incubation.

When an egg hatches, it means an egg opens and produces a young animal. For example:

  • Once the eggs hatch, both the male and the female feed the young.

havoc keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hav-oc/ [hh.ae1.v.ah0.k]

Definition: Widespread destruction:

Example sentences:

  • A tornado is a funnel-shaped cloud that descends on land, creating havoc and destruction in its wake.

hazardous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/haz-ardous/ [hh.ae1.z.er0.d.ah0.s]

The noun "hazard" means something dangerous, and the adjective hazardous refers to anything that involves danger. The phrase 'be hazardous to' is often used.  Here are example sentences:

  • Smoking can be hazardous to your health.
  • There are some chemicals that are hazardous to human beings.
  • Restricting your food intake is potentially hazardous to you and your developing baby.
  • The government may want Apple to add a warning on all IPod's that they could be hazardous to people.
hemisphere keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hemi-sphere/ [hh.eh1.m.ih0.s.f.ih2.r]

hemisphere is one half of the earth like the northern hemisphere or the southern hemisphere

hemisphere is also one half of the brain. An example in a sentence:

  • In most people, the left hemisphere is bigger than the right.
herbivore keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/her-bi-vore/ [hh.er1.b.ih0.v.ao2.r]

herbivore is an animal that gets its energy from eating plants, and only plants. Omnivores can also eat parts of plants, but generally only the fruits and vegetables produced by fruit-bearing plants. Manyherbivores have special digestive systems that let them digest all kinds of plants, including grasses.

hereditary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hered-i-tary/ [hh.er0.eh1.d.ah0.t.eh2.r.iy0]

Definition: determined by genetic factors and therefore able to be passed on from parents to their offspring or descendants

Example senences:

  • They extend their speculations, even forecasting that, by genetic manipulation, they will be able to cure hereditary diseases and defects and, possibly, make a race having superior bodies and intellects.

 

heyday keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hey-day/ [hh.ey1.d.ey2]

Definition: a high point of success or abundance

Example sentences:

  • You have to go back 10 years, to the heyday of Radio 1, to find a station with a bigger audience.

hibernation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hi-ber-na-tion/ [hh.ay2.b.er0.n.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

The broad definition of the verb “hibernate” is to spend the winter sleeping or resting. Hibernation is the act of hibernating, and hibernators are animals that hibernate. 

hierarchy keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hi-er-ar-chy/ [hh.ay1.er0.aa2.r.k.iy0]

Definition: A system in which members of an organization or society are ranked according to relative status or authority:

Example sentences:

  • The most important thing in the election of the chairman was not professional competence in the field, but activity within the Party and a sufficiently high status in the political hierarchy.

highlight keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/high-light/ [hh.ay1.l.ay2.t]

Definition: to emphasize the part of a greater whole

Example sentences:

  • Superhero comics in general have made major strides this year to highlight diverse voices and characters for diverse audiences.
  • Most students highlight as they are reading text for the first time, when they do not know what is important enough to highlight.

hinder keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hin-der/ [hh.ih1.n.d.er0]

The verb “hinder” means to make (something, such as a task or action) slow or difficult  It has the same meaning of "impede". Example sentences using the word hinder:

  • Their journey was hindered (impeded) by snow and high winds.
  • The country's economic growth is being hindered (impeded) by the sanctions.
  • It's not clear whether the change will help or hinder (impede) our project.
  • Fallen rock is hindering (impeding) the progress of rescue workers

 

 

holocaust keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/holo-caust/ [hh.ao1.l.ah0.k.ao2.s.t]

Definition: (the Holocaust) The mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime during the period 1941-5. More than 6 million European Jews, as well as members of other persecuted groups, were murdered at concentration camps such as Auschwitz.

Example sentences:

  • Why should they, on top of everything else they go through, have to suffer the terror of anticipating a nuclear holocaust?

household name keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/house-hold name/ [no ipa available]

Definition: a person or thing that is very well known

Example sentences:

  • Long before mixed martial arts became a worldwide phenomenon and Ultimate Fighting became a household name, Bruce Lee created jeet kune do — a realistic combat hybrid that incorporated the most useful elements of kung fu, boxing and fencing.

humidity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hu-mid-i-ty/ [hh.y.uw0.m.ih1.d.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: A quantity representing the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere or in a gas:

Example senences:

  • High temperatures favour chemical erosion, and high humidities and rainfall ensure that abundant water is available for the dissolution process

 

hydraulic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hy-draulic/ [hh.ay0.d.r.ao1.l.ih0.k]

Definition: Denoting or relating to a liquid moving in a confined space under pressure

Example sentences:

  • After we shot down the catapult, we saw a sheen of hydraulic fluid covering the pressure bulkhead in the back of the aircraft.

hydrogen keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hy-dro-gen/ [hh.ay1.d.r.ah0.jh.ah0.n]

Definition: A colourless, odourless, highly flammable gas, the chemical element of atomic number 1.

Example sentences:

  • We know that the Moon is low on certain chemicals such as hydrogen and carbon

hypotheses keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hy-pothe-ses/ [hh.ay0.p.aa1.th.ah0.s.iy2.z]

Definition: A proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without any assumption of its truth.

Example sentences:

  • What factors could affect the population of the CoT starfish that can cause it to suddenly rise? Several hypotheses which are still debatable up to the present time have been developed by various environmentalists.

habitation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/habi-ta-tion/ [hh.ae2.b.ah0.t.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

A habitat is a place where a plant or animal naturally lives. The terms ‘habitat loss (= loss of habitat)’, ‘natural habitats’, ‘wildlife habitats’ are often used. Habitation means the act of living in a place. For example, when an area has no human habitation, it means that no people live there.

Example sentences:

  • Mining and oil exploration render land unusable for habitation and causes other forms of environmental degradation by releasing toxic materials into the environment. (habitation)
  • Most endangered species are threatened by multiple factors, but habitat loss is generally viewed as the largest single cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. (habitat loss)
  • Habitat loss poses great threats to species.​
  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have deteriorated the quality of wildlife habitats.
hallucination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hal-lu-ci-na-tion/ [hh.ah0.l.uw2.s.ah0.n.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: An experience involving the apparent perception of something not present:

Example sentences:

  • Both dreams and hallucinations involve intensive activation of the seeking system.

hamper keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ham-per/ [hh.ae1.m.p.er0]

Definition: Hinder or impede the movement or progress of

Example senences:

  • The police organised several cranes to tow away vehicles in the area that were hampering the movement of the fire fighters.

handle keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/han-dle/ [hh.ae1.n.d.ah0.l]

Definition: to deal with or control

Example sentences:

  • How you present yourself and your brand in these situations says a lot about how your brand maintains good customer relationships and handles obstacles.
  • People seeking admittance will be handled on a basis of first come, first served.

harbor keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/har-bor/ [hh.aa1.r.b.er0]

Definition: secretly shelter (as of fugitives or criminals); keep in one's possession

Example sentences:

  • The town has a population of 150,000 and harbors millions of pounds of discarded e-waste like computers, cellphones, and hard drives.
  • Everybody harbors secrets: shameful, disgusting, sometimes deadly secrets.

harmful keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/harm-ful/ [hh.aa1.r.m.f.ah0.l]

The adjective harmful describe things that cause harm to something or someone. The phrases 'be harmful to something'  and "have a harmful effect/impact on something" are often used. Here are example sentences:

  • Listening to loud music through headphones can be harmful to your hearing. 
  • Burning coal can be harmful to the environment.
  • Harmful words can hurt someone's feelings.
  • The chemical kills harmful (meaning dangerous) bacteria.
  • They claim that the drug has no harmful (adverse) side effects.
  • These pesticides are environmentally harmful.
  • Smoking is harmful to your health.
  • Eating too much sugar can be harmful to your health.
  • Watching too much TV is harmful to a child's intellectual and social development.
  • Watching too much TV has a harmful impact on child's intellectual and social development
harness keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/har-ness/ [hh.aa1.r.n.ah0.s]

Definition: Control and make use of (natural resources), especially to produce energy

Example sentences:

  • Ireland should be harnessing its natural resources.

hasten keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/has-ten/ [hh.ey1.s.ah0.n]

Definition: to cause to go faster; move forward more quickly

Example sentences:

  • A personalized approach could eliminate a lot of trial-and-error and hasten critical time to treatment, the study suggests.
  • The rise of alternative platforms, such as online streaming services, can also hasten the subscriber losses for the pay-TV industry.

hatchling keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hatch-ling/ [no ipa available]

A hatchling is a young animal that has recently emerged from its egg. Here are example sentences:

  • There are many obstacles for turtle hatchlings, such as crabs, birds and many other predators in the ocean.
  • Young hatchlings are vulnerable to predation.
hazard keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/haz-ard/ [hap..hh.ae0.p.hh.ae1.z.er0.d]

If something is a hazard, it is a potential source of danger.  The preposition 'for or to ' is used.

The preposition “to”, is used when some kind of transfer is happening or something is being moved from one place to another.

The preposition “for”, is used when something is being done to benefit something or someone else or when you are trying to express purpose or the reason that something is happening.

Look at these two example sentences:

  • The burning of industrial waste is a major hazard to human health.
  • Holes in the pavement are a hazard for blind people.

In the first sentence, industrial waste is generally a hazard and burning this waste transfers this hazard to human. In this case, to is used because there is some kind of transfer.

In the case of the second sentence, holes in the pavement can be a hazard for anyone but it is especially a hazard for blind people because they cannot see to avoid these holes. The preposition "for "is used to express the reason why the holes in the pavement are a hazard.

 

 

 For example:

  • Holes in the pavement are a hazard for blind people.
  • Hand injuries are an occupational hazard for typists. (meaning typists are likely to have hand injuries because of the work they do)

The preposition 'to ' is used when it is followed by a thing. For example:

  • The burning of industrial waste is a major hazard to human health.

Here are example sentences:  

  • Balloons are fun, but they're a hazard for little kids who might put them in their mouths.
  • That old staircase is a safety hazard. (meaning it is dangerous; someone could get hurt by using it)
  • Young people should be educated about the hazards of excessive drinking.
  • Production of these chemicals poses serious environmental hazards.

As a verb, hazard means to take a risk, especially for the chance of a good return. For example:

  • You might hazard your chances 
  • His friend asked him to hazard a small sum in a business venture.
  • She was unwilling to hazard a guess as to who would win.The prepositions; “for” or “to” are often used.

 

PHRASES

  • exposure to a hazard

Example sentence:

  • Try and reduce your exposure to hazards such as poor quality air.

COLLOCATIONS

health hazard

  • The rubbish needs to be removed before it becomes a health hazard.

a fire hazard

  • The unoccupied building was declared a fire hazard.

a safety hazard

  • Protesters claim that the nuclear reactor is a safety hazard.

a traffic hazard

  • Cars parked in the wrong places can cause a traffic hazard.

a natural hazard (=a hazard caused by nature)

  • One of the most widespread natural hazards is flooding.

cause/create a hazard

  • There was concern that overhead power lines could cause a health hazard.

pose a hazard (=be a possible hazard)

  • It was not known whether radiation from the weapons posed any hazard to soldiers.

eliminate a hazard (=get rid of a hazard)

  • They took steps to eliminate all potential fire hazards.

reduce a hazard

  • He led the campaign to recognize and reduce the hazard from radiation in our environment.

 

 

heighten keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/height-en/ [hh.ay1.t.ah0.n]

Definition: make more extreme; raise in quantity, degree, or intensity

Example sentences:

  • Even in this heightened state of cyberattacks, reasonable security measures can be taken to ensure that data and applications are safeguarded in the cloud.
  • A very successful interview can heighten a candidate's chances to get a job.

herbaceous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/herba-ceous/ [er0.b.ey1.sh.ah0.s]

Definition: Of, denoting, or relating to herbs (in the botanical sense).

Example sentences:

  • Overwintering herbaceous plants or evergreen trees can only survive the winter seasons of cold climates when they are able to acclimate.

herbivore keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/her-bi-vore/ [hh.er1.b.ih0.v.ao2.r]

herbivore is an animal that gets its energy from eating plants, and only plants. Omnivores can also eat parts of plants, but generally only the fruits and vegetables produced by fruit-bearing plants. Manyherbivores have special digestive systems that let them digest all kinds of plants, including grasses.

heterosexual keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/het-ero-sex-u-al/ [hh.eh2.t.er0.ow0.s.eh1.k.sh.uw2.ah0.l]

Definition: (Of a person) sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex.

Example sentences:

  • There is ample evidence to show that sexual aggression is a serious problem in heterosexual relationships

hibernate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hi-ber-nate/ [hh.ay1.b.er0.n.ey2.t]

The broad definition of the verb hibernate” is to spend the winter sleeping or resting. Hibernation is the act of hibernating, and hibernators are animals that hibernate. 

hibernator keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hi-ber-na-tor/ [no ipa available]

The broad definition of the verb “hibernate” is to spend the winter sleeping or resting. Hibernation is the act of hibernating, and hibernators are animals that hibernate. 

hieroglyphic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hi-ero-glyph-ic/ [hh.ay2.r.ow0.g.l.ih1.f.ih0.k]

Hieroglyphic is a writing system using symbols or pictures. Ancient Egyptians had a hieroglyphic system, rather than an alphabet. An example  in a sentence:

  • We discovered the tribe had a hieroglyphic system which was very difficult to translate.

 

hinder keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hin-der/ [hh.ih1.n.d.er0]

The verb “hinder” means to make (something, such as a task or action) slow or difficult  It has the same meaning of "impede". Example sentences using the word hinder:

  • Their journey was hindered (impeded) by snow and high winds.
  • The country's economic growth is being hindered (impeded) by the sanctions.
  • It's not clear whether the change will help or hinder (impede) our project.
  • Fallen rock is hindering (impeding) the progress of rescue workers

 

 

hindrance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hin-drance/ [hh.ih1.n.d.r.ah0.n.s]

A hindrance is a person or thing that makes a situation difficult. The preposition “to” is often used.  For example

  • She wanted to sign up for the class, but the cost was a hindrance. [=the class cost too much]
  • I'm afraid you're more of a hindrance to me than a help at this point.
  • He meant to help with the project, but he’s actually become a hindrance
  • These sanctions are a hindrance to the country's economic growth. = These sanctions are an impediment to the country's economic growth.
  • Dehydration can be a hindrance to proper circulation.
  • Strong winds are a hindrance to mountain climbers.

 

The phrase 'without (let or) hindrance' means 'without being interfered with'. Here is an example sentence:

  • They have the right to vote without let or hindrance.
  • He should be allowed to live where he chooses without let or hindrance.

 

 

 

 

holocene keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/holocene/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Of, relating to, or denoting the present epoch, which is the second epoch in the Quaternary period and followed the Pleistocene. Also called Recent.

Example sentences:

  • At that point, around the time of the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene, a rapid warming began the shift toward modern climatic conditions.

hue keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hue/ [hh.y.uw1]

Definition: the quality of a color as determined by its dominant wavelength

Example sentences:

  • When a full moon makes its closest approach to Earth, it appears slightly bigger and brighter than usual and has a reddish hue.
  • The heat of the firework can help change the shade of the color, with hotter temperatures burning into paler hues.

humus keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hu-mus/ [hh.y.uw1.m.ah0.s]

Definition: The organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil microorganisms

Example sentences:

  • Incidentally, soil rich in organic humus will hold more water longer and be more drought-resistant.

hydroelectric keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hy-dro-elec-tric/ [hh.ay2.d.r.ow0.ih0.l.eh1.k.t.r.ih0.k]

Definition: Relating to or denoting the generation of electricity using flowing wate

Example sentences:

  • Electricity generated through the use of waterwheels or hydraulic turbines is known as hydroelectric powe

hydrothermal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hy-drother-mal/ [hh.ay2.d.r.ow0.th.er1.m.ah0.l]

Definition: Relating to or denoting the action of heated water in the earth’s crust

Example sentences:

  • Because hydrothermal water is rich in certain metals, like manganese, an increase in the concentration in a sample can point to a vent.

hypothesis keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/hy-poth-e-sis/ [hh.ay0.p.aa1.th.ah0.s.ah0.s]

Definition: A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation

Example sentences:

  • The only thing you can do is say the evidence suggests that the hypothesis is true.

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