IELTS® Vocabulary List

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Words that start with r
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racism keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/racism/ [r.ey1.s.ih2.z.ah0.m]

Definition: Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior:

Example sentences:

  • Positive discrimination can increase racism rather than working to decrease it.

radiate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ra-di-ate/ [r.ey1.d.iy0.ey2.t]

Definition: Emit (energy, especially light or heat) in the form of rays or waves

Example sentences:

  • If a particle moves faster than the speed of light, it must create a shockwave, and radiate energy.

radioactive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ra-dioac-tive/ [r.ey2.d.iy0.ow0.ae1.k.t.ih0.v]

Something that is radioactive contains a substance that produces energy in the form of powerful and harmful rays. Here are example sentences:

  • The government has been storing radioactive waste at Fernald for 50 years.
  • The nucleus of a radioactive atom disintegrates spontaneously and forms an atom of a different element while emitting radiation in the process.
rainfall keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rain-fall/ [r.ey1.n.f.ao2.l]

Rainfall is the amount of rain that falls in a place during a particular period.

Example sentences:

  • Arid and semi-arid or subhumid zones are characterized by low erratic rainfall and periodic droughts.
  • Dryland agriculture, a form of subsistence farming, refers to cultivation of crops entirely under natural rainfall.
rapidly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rapid-ly/ [r.ae1.p.ah0.d.l.iy0]

rapidly = quickly

Example sentences using the word rapidly:

  • He was breathing rapidly.
  • Her heart beat rapidly.
readily keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/read-i-ly/ [r.eh1.d.ah0.l.iy0]

We use readily to say that something can be done or obtained quickly and easily. The collocation "readily available" is often used. Here are example sentences:

  • Solar energy is one of the most renewable and readily available source of energy.
  • Cars and other vehicles are now readily available and are technologically advanced enough to be safe for use every day and to work as a reliable tool for getting people and goods from one place to another.
  • With the advent of the Internet, information is readily available as the cost of personal computers keeps going down within the affordability of everyone. This brings about a profound change in a way of how we work, learn, and communicate.
  • Before the advent of the Internetinformation was not yet so readily available to the general public.
  •  

Anything happening readily is happening without difficulty. For example:

  • The sugars in the fruit are readily absorbed by the body.

 

 

 

 

reassure keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-as-sure/ [r.iy2.ah0.sh.uh1.r]

Definition: Say or do something to remove the doubts and fears of (someone)

Example sentences:

  • Her smile reassures David the outfit he chose was a wise decision.

receptive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-cep-tive/ [r.ih0.s.eh1.p.t.ih0.v]

Definition: Able to receive signals or stimuli

Example sentences:

  • The goldfish’s vision is receptive to a wider band of light than almost any other animal.
  • Exfoliation removes dead skin cells, embedded dirt and toxins, and stimulates the skin, making it receptive to the nutrient-rich facial mask that should follow.

recession keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-ces-sion/ [r.ih0.s.eh1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: A period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters

Example sentences:

  • Economic recessions are predominantly the result of insufficient demand. As political economists have always emphasized, periodic recessions are endemic to capitalism.

reciprocal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rec-i-p-ro-cal/ [r.ih0.s.ih1.p.r.ah0.k.ah0.l]

Definition: in return: in exchange or in reciprocation;

Example sentences:

  • The energy of attraction between opposite charges is reciprocally related to the distance between the charges.

recompense keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rec-om-pense/ [r.eh1.k.ah0.m.p.eh2.n.s]

Definition: a repayment or reward for a deed

Example sentences:

  • These works are among the great recompenses that experience offers us.

recurrent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-cur-rent/ [r.ih0.k.er1.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Occurring often or repeatedly:

Example sentences:

  • She had a recurrent dream about falling.

refine keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-fine/ [r.ah0.f.ay1.n]

Definition: Remove impurities or unwanted elements from (a substance), typically as part of an industrial process

Example sentences:

  • Sugar was refined by boiling it in huge iron vats.
  • When oil is refined this reaction is used to remove unwanted alkenes.

reformist keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-formist/ [r.ih0.f.ao1.r.m.ih0.s.t]

A reformist is a disputant who advocates reform. It is a person who wants change, for one reason or another. The change could be for the better, or for the worse, but they are advocating for change.

  • The reformist had a large impact on the direction of the company.
  • The artist was a reformist, and that was what provoked his work.
refrain keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-frain/ [r.ih0.f.r.ey1.n]

Definition: Stop oneself from doing something

Example sentences:

  • To avoid their after taste during dessert, we might have refrained from eating them.

regurgitate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-gur-gi-tate/ [r.ih2.g.er1.jh.ah0.t.ey2.t]

Definition: Bring (swallowed food) up again to the mouth:

Example sentences:

  • Before six months of age chicks continue to stay around the nest as their parents bring back food and regurgitate it for them.

reinforce keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-in-force/ [r.iy2.ih0.n.f.ao1.r.s]

Definition: Strengthen (an existing feeling, idea, or habit):

Example sentences:

  • She said the educational system reinforces the idea that there is only one right answer, stifling creativity

relate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-late/ [r.ih0.l.ey1.t]

Definition: give an account of; to show a connection between two things

Example sentences:

  • The simulation took into account a variety of physical equations — such as those related to gravity, the flow of fluids, how stars evolve, and more.

reliably keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-li-ably/ [r.ih0.l.ay1.ah0.b.l.iy0]

Definition: in a trusted way

Example sentences:

  • An appliance must perform its task reliably to be popular with consumers.

reluctantly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-luc-tant-ly/ [r.ih0.l.ah1.k.t.ah0.n.t.l.iy0]

Definition: unwillingly

Example sentences:

  • She was cognizant of the art market, selling Her work reluctantly, because she thought it was priced too low.
  • She reluctantly agreed to the doctor's recommendation to taper off her antidepressant.

remission keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-mis-sion/ [r.iy0.m.ih1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: A temporary diminution of the severity of disease or pain:

Example sentences:

  • No single therapy has been proven effective at achieving complete remission in every patient.

renown keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/renown/ [r.ih0.n.aw1.n]

Definition: the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed; fame

Example sentences:

  • At the peak of his renown, he became the world's best-known businessman, with prominent appearances in financial publications and television shows.

repellent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-pel-lent/ [r.ih0.p.eh1.l.ah0.n.t]

Definition: A substance that dissuades particular insects or other pests from approaching or settling

Example sentences:

  • The fruits make good outdoor Christmas ornaments or could be used as insect pest repellents in the winter.

replica keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/repli-ca/ [r.eh1.p.l.ih0.k.ah0]

A replica is a copy of the original. Many famous paintings that you see aren’t originals, but they are copies, or replicas of the original. Replica is the noun form of the word, replicate is the verb. If you replicate something you are making a copy.

  • The museum gift shop has lots of replica paintings for sale.
  • I was frustrated when I saw that my coworker had replicated my idea as her own!
reportedly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-port-ed-ly/ [r.ih0.p.ao1.r.t.ah0.d.l.iy0]

Definition: to know by report; unconfirmed; supposedly

Example sentences:

  • Kelly was reportedly fired for alleged corruption and nepotism related in part to the new project.

reproduction keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-pro-duc-tion/ [r.iy2.p.r.ah0.d.ah1.k.sh.ah0.n]

In biology, reproduction is the activity of producing offspring. There are two types of reproduction: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction

In asexual reproduction, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent. There are many modes of asexual reproduction including budding (a new individual splits off from the parent), fission (the parent splits into two or more individuals), and fragmentation (a piece of the parent breaks off into several pieces and regenerates). Asexual reproduction has great advantages for organisms that are immobile, or unable to move around.

The other type of reproduction is sexual reproduction, which is when new organisms are created through fertilization. Fertilization occurs when a human egg and sperm come together. Most animals reproduce through sexual reproduction because it increases genetic variation.

 

reptile keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rep-tile/ [r.eh1.p.t.ay0.l]

Definition: A cold-blooded vertebrate of a class that includes snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. They are distinguished by having a dry scaly skin, and typically laying soft-shelled eggs on land

Example sentences:

  • Several hunts organized by the city government over the past months turned up empty-handed, apparently since cold-blooded reptiles are not very active during the chillier months

resemble keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-sem-ble/ [r.ih0.z.eh1.m.b.ah0.l]

To resemble is to appear like someone or something. 

Example Sentences:

  • He strongly resembles his father in appearance and in temperament.
  • People may get stopped in the streets if they resemble a celebrity.
  • We couldn't find anything resembling (meaning like) a good restaurant. This means they couldn't find a good restaurant)
  • He very much resembles a friend of mine.
  • He does not resemble his brother in any way.

 

The phrase “A resemble B in something” is often used. Take a look at some examples below:

  • The meat resembles chicken in flavor.
  • He strongly resembles his father in appearance

 

COLLOCATIONS

Closely

  • This poem closely resembles an earlier one.

strongly/greatly

  • The ancient tools discovered in Ethiopia strongly resemble those found in Tanzania.

vaguely (=slightly)

  • I heard a weird sound vaguely resembling the bark of a dog.

superficially (=in its appearance)

  • Termites resemble ants superficially.

reservoir keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/reser-voir/ [r.eh1.z.ah0.v.w.aa2.r]

Definition: A large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply

Example sentences:

  • If more reservoirs or artificial lakes are needed, they should be built.

resin keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/resin/ [r.eh1.z.ah0.n]

Definition: A sticky flammable organic substance, insoluble in water, exuded by some trees and other plants (notably fir and pine)

Example sentences:

  • Their first step was to obtain resin from the pine trees which at that time grew in dense forests throughout Europe.

resonant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/res-o-nant/ [r.eh1.z.ah0.n.ah0.n.t]

The adjective “resonant” describes sound that is deep and rich. For example:

  • The church bell is resonant.

respiratory keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/res-pi-ra-to-ry/ [r.eh1.s.p.er0.ah0.t.ao2.r.iy0]

Definition: Relating to or affecting respiration or the organs of respiration

Example sentences:

  • A cough may also be caused by inflammation of the upper respiratory track due to a viral infection due to the common cold or flu.

result keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-sult/ [r.ih0.z.ah1.l.t]
ondemand_video

The following patterns and expressions are commonly used with the noun result.

  • _____(B) is a result of ___(A)
  • The result of __ (A) is ___ (B).
  • When/If ___, the result is ____(B)

 

Here are example sentences:

  • Air pollution is a result of the burning of fossil fuels.
  • The result of deforestation is a loss of natural habitat for various animals.
  • If the economy continues to decline, the result will be the deterioration of our standard of living.
retain keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-tain/ [r.ih0.t.ey1.n]

Definition: Continue to have (something); keep possession of

Example sentences:

  • Built in 1830, the house retains many of its original features

retrieve keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-trieve/ [r.ih0.t.r.iy1.v]

Definition: get or find back; recover the use of

Example sentences:

  • A new study finds that DNA evidence retrieved from elephant dung, tissue and hair can help identify the origins of illegal ivory.

reveal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-veal/ [r.ih0.v.iy1.l]

Definition: make visible; to uncover

Example sentences:

  • The data reveals how much money students are borrowing in exchange for earnings after graduation.

reverberate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-ver-ber-ate/ [r.ih0.v.er1.b.er0.ah0.t]

Reverberate is an intransitive verb. The subject used with this verb is often a sound or a light. So when a sound reverberates, it means the sound bounces off a surface such as a wall. Here are example sentences

  • The sound reverberates better in cavernous places, like gyms, or churches
  • His singing reverberated through the house.

 

Reverberate can also mean to become filled with voice. In this case, the verb is used with a place. For example:

  • The room reverberated with laughter.

revive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-vive/ [r.ih0.v.ay1.v]

When something such as the economy, a business, a trend, or a feeling is revived or when it revives, it becomes active, popular, or successful again.

Example sentences:

  • The fine arts revived during the Renaissance.
rhythm keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rhythm/ [r.ih1.dh.ah0.m]

Definition: A strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound:

Example sentences:

  • Whether it's in the form of romantic melody, upbeat Swing Jazz or exotic world rhythms, the live musical experience adds a unique presence and excitement to any event.

rigid keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rigid/ [r.ih1.jh.ah0.d]

Definition: Unable to bend or be forced out of shape; not flexible

Example sentences:

  • The cabin has plenty of storage spaces, but the door pockets would be much more useful with flexible sides instead of rigid ones.

ritual keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rit-u-al/ [r.ih1.ch.uw0.ah0.l]

A ritual is a ceremony or action performed in a customary way. Your family may have a ritual of eating spaghetti the night before the first day of school. A ritual can also be a stereotype behavior, or a behavior that can be noticed, similar to a habit.

  • I didn’t complete my daily rituals in order this morning, so I have felt a little funny all day.

Used as an adjective, ritual has a religious connotation.

  • The ritual killings were the reason Sally left the cult.

riveting keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/riv-et-ing/ [r.ih1.v.ah0.t.ih0.ng]

The adjective ‘riveting’ also has the same meaning of keeping you on the edge of your seat.

A rivet is a fastener that holds something fixed or two things together, so when you say something is riveting, it means it keeps you fixed or glued to your seat and grabs your attention. We can say a movie is riveting, a book is riveting, and so on.

Take a look at its use below:

  • The story is riveting and keeps the viewer hooked.
  • The movie/book/narrative was riveting.

 

routinely keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rou-tine-ly/ [r.uw0.t.iy1.n.l.iy0]

Definition: according to routine or established practice

Example sentences:

  • Soccer players routinely sustain trauma on the pitch in any number of ways, and head-to-head collisions on contested headers commonly result in concussions.
  • Patients are routinely asked to share their Social Security numbers when seeing a healthcare provider for the first time.

ruin keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ru-in/ [r.uw1.ah0.n]

The ruins of something are the parts of it that remain after it has been severely damaged or weakened.

ruminant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ru-mi-nant/ [r.uw1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.t]

Definition: An even-toed ungulate mammal that chews the cud regurgitated from its rumen. The ruminants comprise the cattle, sheep, antelopes, deer, giraffes, and their relatives.

Example sentences:

  • The giraffe is the biggest ruminant and the tallest mammal in the world.

radiant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ra-di-ant/ [r.ey1.d.iy2.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Sending out light; shining or glowing brightly:

Example sentences:

  • The bright light was radiant with the morning rays of red, orange, pink, and gold, reflecting brilliantly on the glasslike water.

radiation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ra-di-a-tion/ [r.ey2.d.iy0.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles which cause ionization

Example senences:

  • We now know that invisible forces do control some things: gravity, radiation, electricity. Because it uses sound waves instead of radiation, ultrasound is safer than X-rays

 

radiocarbon dating keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ra-dio-car-bon dat-ing/ [no ipa available]

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14. C), a radioactive isotope of carbon.

rapid keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rapid/ [r.ae1.p.ah0.d]

Rapid means happening with great speed or in a brief period of time. Basically, rapid means quick. 

Example sentences with the word rapid:

  • There's been a rapid growth in the number of new businesses in the town.
  • Scientists are concerned about the rapid disappearance of the island's coral reefs.
  • The rapid growth of American cities in the nineteenth century led to a rapid expansion of urban school systems.
  • There has been a rapid decline in the number of coral reefs.
reaction keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-ac-tion/ [r.iy0.ae1.k.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: a reply; a change that occurs when substances are mixed

Example sentences:

  • Scientists explore the origins of energy in chemical reactions using experimental quantum chemistry.
  • Reactions in solids tend to be much more complex than those in liquids, where molecules quickly diffuse into a uniform mixture.

reason keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rea-son/ [r.iy1.z.ah0.n]
ondemand_video

The following patterns and expressions are commonly used with the noun ‘reason’.

One/The reason why _____ is _____

One/The reason for _____ is ____.

 

Let’s look at the following examples:

  • One reason why the population is growing so fast is that death rates have fallen dramatically
  • One reason why the population is growing so fast is the drastic decline in the death rates.
  • The reason for overpopulation is that resources are limited.

 

The adjectives "primary" and "main" are often used with the word "reason". Using this, you can change the last sentence like this:

  • The primary/main reason for overpopulation is that resources are limited.

recede keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-cede/ [r.ih0.s.iy1.d]

To recede means to pull back, retreat, or become faint or distant. Flood waters recede, as do glaciers.

Example sentences:

  • Between ice ages there were warmer interglacial periods when glaciers receded. 

When something such as a quality, problem, or illness recedes, it becomes weaker, smaller, or less intense. For example:

  • Just as I started to think that I was never going to get well, the illness began to recede.
receptor keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-cep-tor/ [r.iy0.s.eh1.p.t.er0]

Definition: An organ or cell able to respond to light, heat, or other external stimulus and transmit a signal to a sensory nerve:

Example sentences:

  • Our own skin contains a battery of touch receptors that produce nerve signals when pressed.

recidivism keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-cidi-vism/ [r.ah0.s.ih1.d.ih0.v.ih2.z.ah0.m]

Definition: habitual relapse into crime

Example sentences:

  • The city has experienced lower crime rates and has the second-lowest recidivism rate in the country.
  • The report states that high school education can have a great impact in reducing recidivism.

reciprocate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rec-i-p-ro-cate/ [r.ih0.s.ih1.p.r.ah0.k.ey2.t]

Definition: Respond to (a gesture or action) by making a corresponding one:

Example sentences:

  • This was a phenomenal break for the band and they reciprocated the gesture with an astounding and memorable performance.

recover keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-cov-er/ [r.ih0.k.ah1.v.er0]

Definition: to get back; to have something returned

Example sentences:

  • You may remember easily recovering from heavy exercise during your teens or twenties, but now in your late 40 a long workout may leave you sore for days.
  • He never recovered from an abusive boyhood that included his father putting him in a pit and throwing beer cans at him.

redundant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-dun-dant/ [r.ih0.d.ah1.n.d.ah0.n.t]

Definition: more than is needed, desired, or required

Example sentences:

  • Now smartphone cameras are so good that point-and-shoot cameras seem almost redundant.

reflection keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-flec-tion/ [r.ah0.f.l.eh1.k.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: a picture or element thrown back

Example sentences:

  • Freedom of improvisation within form itself was a reflection of their human condition.
  • Our currency is a reflection of our values and should rightfully represent our inclusive democracy

refractive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-frac-tive/ [r.ah0.f.r.ae1.k.t.ih0.v]

Definition: Of or involving refraction.

Example sentences:

  • Eyes that are not optimized in this way are said to have refractive errors (long sight or short sight).

regeneration keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-gen-er-a-tion/ [r.iy0.jh.eh1.n.er0.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The action or process of regenerating or being regenerated;The formation of new animal or plant tissue.

Example senences:

  • These receptors are involved in the regulation of metabolism, embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and cell proliferation.

reign keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/reign/ [r.ey1.n]

People who reign rule over people in one way or another. The king reigns over the people, meaning he can make decisions that impact everyone. As a verb, it means to have sovereign power, or have a large degree of power, status or importance. As a noun, it is royal authority.

reject keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-ject/ [r.ih0.jh.eh1.k.t]

Definition: refuse to accept or acknowledge

Example sentences:

  • Airlines for America, a trade group for the airline industry, has rejected the idea of legroom and seat width standards.

release keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-lease/ [r.iy0.l.iy1.s]

Definition: to allow to come out; to give freedom

Example sentences:

  • The show raised $24 million for charity, according to a press release.
  • The project could release massive carbon reserves into the atmosphere, accelerating the warming.

relinquish keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-lin-quish/ [r.ih0.l.ih1.ng.k.w.ih0.sh]

Definition: turn away from; give up

Example sentences:

  • He had chosen to adopt the boys, whose biological father had relinquished custody after failing to pay child support.
  • Marriage involves relinquishing some aspect of personal freedom in order to submit to the disciplined identities of husband or wife.

remarkable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-mark-able/ [r.ih0.m.aa1.r.k.ah0.b.ah0.l]

Definition: worthy of mention;uncommon

Example sentences:

  • The invention of the computer was a remarkable achievement.

renewable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-new-able/ [r.iy0.n.uw1.ah0.b.ah0.l]

Definition: (Of a natural resource or source of energy) not depleted when used

Example sentences:

  • If you're willing to put solar panels on your roof or a hybrid car in your driveway, you may be eligible for tax incentives and rebates on renewable sources of energy and related technologies.
  • There's no doubt that wind and solar are clean, efficient and renewable sources of energy.v

repel keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-pel/ [r.ih0.p.eh1.l]

Definition: Drive or force (an attack or attacker) back or away;(Of a substance) resist mixing with or be impervious to (another substance):

Example sentences:

  • In the physical world, once an attacker is repelled, you follow up with counterattack
  • The glass, coated with microscopic chemical coatings, has properties which repel moisture and dirt, allowing them to be washed away during normal rainy weather.

repetitive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/repet-i-tive/ [r.ih0.p.eh1.t.ih0.t.ih0.v]

Definition: Containing or characterized by repetition, especially when unnecessary or tiresome

Example sentences:

  • a repetitive task

replicate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/repli-cate/ [r.eh1.p.l.ih0.k.ey2.t]

Definition: Make an exact copy of; reproduce

Example sentences:

  • Cloning will be used for far more than replicating a mammal or reproducing a child. A lot of immigrants finish up replicating the culture they came from.

reproduce keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-pro-duce/ [r.iy2.p.r.ah0.d.uw1.s]

In biology, to reproduce is to produce offspring.

Here are example sentences:

  • Most animals reproduce through sexual reproduction because it increases genetic variation.
  • Corals reproduce asexually by budding or fragmentation. Through budding, new polyps “bud” off from parent polyps to form new colonies. In fragmentation, an entire colony branches off to form a new colony.
  • Sea anemones reproduce both sexually and asexually.
reproductive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-pro-duc-tive/ [r.iy2.p.r.ah0.d.ah1.k.t.ih0.v]

Anything related to reproduction can be described as reproductive. For example:

  • Scientists who study reproductive habits of animals analyze how they bear offspring.
  • Fertility doctors help people who are having reproductive problems.
  • The reproductive behavior of fishes is remarkably diversified: they may be oviparous (lay eggs), ovoviviparous (retain the eggs in the body until they hatch), or viviparous (have a direct tissue connection with the developing embryos and give birth to live young)
resemblance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-sem-blance/ [r.ih0.z.eh1.m.b.l.ah0.n.s]

A resemblance is a similarity in appearance.

A has/bears a resemblance to B = A resembles B in appearance. 

Example sentences:

  • Children usually have a strong resemblance to their biological parents. 
  • He bears/has a close/striking/strong/uncanny resemblance to his father. This means he looks a lot like his father)
  • When she showed me her niece's picture, I immediately saw the family resemblance.
  • He doesn't look exactly like his father, but there is some resemblance.
  • There is no resemblance between her and her sister.
  • I noticed some resemblances between them.

 

You might see the following phrases with the word "resemblance":

  • A point of resemblance
  • there the resemblance ends (=they are not similar in any other way)

Example sentences:

  • The story has points of resemblance to a Hebrew myth.
  • They are both strong-minded women, but there the resemblance ends.

 

 

 

 

resentment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-sent-ment/ [r.ih0.z.eh1.n.t.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Bitter indignation at having been treated unfairly

Example sentences:

  • There is much poverty and anguish in the world, and it breeds resentment and envy.

resilient keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-silient/ [r.ih0.z.ih1.l.y.ah0.n.t]

Definition: (Of a substance or object) able to recoil or spring back into shape after bending, stretching, or being compressed

Example sentences:

  • Foam is resilient, keeps its shape and comes in a range of densities.

resonance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/res-o-nance/ [r.eh1.z.ah0.n.ah0.n.s]

The noun “resonance” means the quality of a sound that stays loud, clear, and deep for a long time. Here is an example sentence:

  • There is a great resonance in this singer’s voice

resonate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/res-onate/ [r.eh1.z.ah0.n.ey2.t]

When you say a sound resonates, you mean that it fills the area with sound through vibrations. The result is a full, clear and deep sound for a long time.

In the meaning of filling a place with sound, both reverberate and resonate can be used, other than that reverberate highlights more the meaning of reflection while resonating highlights sounds in harmony and sound which become louder through vibration.

Therefore, when a sound reverberates in a room, it also resonates.

Here are example sentences using resonate

  • The siren resonated throughout the city.
  • The singing resonated throughout the stadium.
  • The books on top of the piano resonate when he plays.
restore keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-store/ [r.ih0.s.t.ao1.r]

Definition: Bring back (a previous right, practice, custom, or situation); reinstate

Example sentences:

  • The Second Continental Congress long insisted that it was fighting only to restore English rights to the settlers under the traditional government of the empire.

result in keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-sult in/ [no ipa available]

Definition: lead to

Example sentences:

  • Self-management promotes worker responsibility and results in workers taking on a higher workload. Modern art features a lot of experimentation that resulted in new ways of painting

retina keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/reti-na/ [r.eh1.t.ah0.n.ah0]

Definition: A layer at the back of the eyeball that contains cells sensitive to light, which trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain, where a visual image is formed.

Example sentences:

  • The chip captures light that enters the eye, and generates an electrical signal that is transmitted to the overlaying neural cells of the retina.

retrospective keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ret-ro-spec-tive/ [r.eh2.t.r.ah0.s.p.eh1.k.t.ih0.v]

Retro- means back, -spect- means look (think: spectacles), so the word means literally 'a looking back.'  

"Retrospectivecan be an adjective, meaning relating to the past or something that happened in the past. For example:

  • Many people take a retrospective look at their lives on birthdays or on New Year's Eve to evaluate events and see how well they've met their goals.
  • You could call the yearly evaluation you get from your boss a retrospective review of your work.
  • The museum is having a retrospective exhibit of the artist's early works.
  • They issued a retrospective report.

"Retrospective" can be a noun.  An art exhibit that covers an artist's entire career is called a retrospective because it looks back at the work the artist has produced over many years.

The phrase "in retrospect" means when thinking about the past or something that happened in the past​ Here are example sentences:

  • In retrospect, I should have realized I was going to fail the class.
  • In retrospect, I made the right decision.​

 

reverberant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-ver-ber-ant/ [no ipa available]

Reverberant describes something - mostly a material, medium or a place - that can reflect sounds. Here are example sentences:

  • Sound levels in a highly reverberant room can be considerably higher.
  • The air is reverberant because sounds could be heard to a great distance.
  • Cavernous places like gyms are reverberant.
reverberation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/re-ver-ber-a-tion/ [r.iy0.v.er2.b.er0.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

The noun “reverberation” can mean the echo of a sound. For example:

  • When you bang on a big piece of metal, you can hear the reverberation even after you stop hitting it. ( Here you can replace reverberation with echo)

Reverberation can also mean the process of reverberating as in the following examples

  • Low reverberation plays an important role in good acoustics.
  • This wall absorbs the sound and prevents reverberation.
revolutionize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rev-o-lu-tion-ize/ [r.eh2.v.ah0.l.uw1.sh.ah0.n.ay2.z]

Revolutionize is a verb which means to make a major change. You can use this word to describe something that is completely changed.

  • The new owner wanted to revolutionize the business, and the former employees were quite unhappy.

ridge keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ridge/ [r.ih1.jh]

Definition: a long narrow natural elevation or striation

Example sentences:

  • The animals have been known to avoid the insects by moving to windy ridges or snow patches that have fewer mosquitoes.
  • The mountain ridge was heavily forested.

rigorous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rig-or-ous/ [r.ih1.g.er0.ah0.s]

Definition: Extremely thorough and careful

Example sentences:

  • Her approach to film is not unlike that of photography: careful composition, rigorous planning of the frame, scrupulous attention to visual detail and regular use of a stationary camera.

ritualization keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rit-u-al-iza-tion/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The evolutionary process by which an action or behaviour pattern in an animal loses its original function but is retained for its role in display or other social interaction.

Example sentences:

  • Footdrumming, as with other signals, probably originated by ritualization of older forms of behavior not associated with communication such as running and digging.

robust keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ro-bust/ [r.ow0.b.ah1.s.t]

Definition: sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction

Example sentences:

  • The trade numbers are robust which means consumer confidence is good and we returned a budget surplus.
  • He also operates a robust wholesale business, where he delivers his loaves to cafes, restaurants, and other shops downtown.

rudimentary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/rudi-men-ta-ry/ [r.uw2.d.ah0.m.eh1.n.t.er0.iy0]

Definition: Involving or limited to basic principles;Relating to an immature, undeveloped, or basic form

Example sentences:

  • A large proportion are children who have barely obtained rudimentary education and live in shacks without basic amenities. The first digit, or dew claw, is rudimentary but clawed and does not contact the ground.

ruler keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ruler/ [r.uw1.l.er0]

A ruler is a person who leads, or commands. Think of a president or king as a ruler. They make decisions for a large group of people. Rulers can be liked, or disliked and voted in, or they may have taken power with force, but they are a ruler, nonetheless.

  • The ruler of the tribe didn’t believe in warfare, so they were a very peaceful group of people.

 

runoff keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/runoff/ [r.ah1.n.ao2.f]

Definition: The draining away of water (or substances carried in it) from the surface of an area of land, a building or structure, etc.

Example senences:

  • Over time, fertilizer run-off from agriculture, for example, may load the lake with excess nutrients.

 

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