TOEFL® Vocabulary List

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Words that start with d
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dappled keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dap-pled/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Marked with spots or rounded patches

Example sentences:

  • Everywhere the wide-spreading branches of giant ancient trees create havens of dappled light.

debilitating keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-bil-i-tat-ing/ [d.ah0.b.ih1.l.ah0.t.ey2.t.ih0.ng]

Definition: weakening

Example sentences:

  • The lack of investment savings has a debilitating effect on the economy

decay keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-cay/ [d.ih0.k.ey1]

When something such as a dead body, a dead plant, or a tooth decays, it is gradually destroyed by a natural process. An example in a sentence:

  • Radioactive atoms decay into stable atoms by a simple mathematical process. Half of the available atoms will change in a given period of time, known as the half-life.

 

Decay is also a noun, meaning a process of being destroyed by a natural process. An example in a sentence:

  • The new method of mummification began around 2600 BC when the Egyptians began to remove the internal organs to prevent fast decay.
deciduous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-cid-u-ous/ [d.ih2.s.ih1.jh.uw0.ah0.s]

deciduous tree or bush is one that loses its leaves in the autumn every year.

declination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dec-li-na-tion/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The angular distance of a point north or south of the celestial equator;The angular deviation of a compass needle from true north (because the magnetic north pole and the geographic north pole do not coincide).

Example senences:

  • To calculate the distance we need to know the declination of the sun on a given day.
  • The compass needle and a knowledge of magnetic declination, the angle between the magnetic north and geographic north, were developments from this knowledge; they were described by Shen Kua in 1088

 

decline keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-cline/ [d.ih0.k.l.ay1.n]

Definition: become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease:

Example senences:

  • Both national and community studies have shown that physical activity decreases after early adulthood and continues to decline after age 50. Housing prices in general continued to decline in April, with a drop of 7.1 per cent.

decrease keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-crease/ [d.ih0.k.r.iy1.s]

The word decrease can be a noun or a verb.

As a noun, it means a drop/reduction/decline in the amount, number or value of something. 

An increase in something  = a rise in the amount, number or value of something. Remember the preposition is "in". Here are example sentences:

  • We've had a decrease in the number of students enrolling in the school.
  • College is trying to combat the sharp decrease in enrollment.
  • U.S. colleges have experienced a decrease in enrollment. 
  • Studies report a recent decrease in traffic accidents.
  • The city has experienced a decrease in population.
  • The decrease in the population of invasive species led to the increase in the number of native species.
  • Many parts of the country have experienced a decrease in unemployment.
  • There has been a decrease in demand for two-bedroom apartments.

You will also see the usage "a decrease of X percent". For example:

  • The report showed increases of between 20 and 30 percent.
  • The company had a decrease of 10% in sales. = The company had a 10% decrease in sales.

The phrase 'on the decrease' means "is decreasing".  You can also use the phrase 'in decline'. Here are example sentences:

  • The number of college applications is on the decrease. = The number of college applications is decreasing. = The number of college applications is in decline.
  • Burglaries in the area are on the decrease = Burglaries in the area are decreasing.

 

When used as a verb, it means to become or to make something smaller in amount, number, value, etc. 

Example sentences using the word increase in the verb form:

  • Sales decreased this year. 
  • The population is decreasing at an unprecedented rate.
  • The house decreased in value.
  • The heart gradually decreases in size.
  • They've decreased the price by 50%.  (Used as a transitive verb, meaning making something smaller in amount, number, value )

In the verb form the prepositions “by”, “to” and “with” are often used with the word increase. Take a look at the examples below:

  • The budget has decreased by more than a third in the last year.
  • Last month the reward was decreased from £20,000 to £40,000.
  • The number of quarrels among children decreases with age.


 

decreasing keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-creas-ing/ [d.ih0.k.r.iy1.s.ih0.ng]

Difference between “decreasing” and “decreased”

When something is decreasing, it means that this thing continues to become less or smaller; however, when something has decreased, it means that thing has now stopped decreasing.

Let’s further look at the difference between “decreasing” and “decreased” in the following example sentences:

  • The patient has a decreasing appetite.
  • The patient has a decreased appetite.

As you just saw, both words can be used in the sentence; but"decreasing" would suggest that patient’s appetite continues to get lower, whereas "decreased" would suggest it has now stopped and reached a lower level than it was before.

Let’s consider another example:

  • Canada has reported a decreasing crime rate in their major cities.
  • Canada has seen a decreased crime rate in their major cities.

Can you think about the meaning in these sentences?  Also, can you think about when to correctly use these words in sentences?

Let’s further take a look at how to use these words to mean different things in the following example:

If the crime rate is still decreasing or getting lower, use decreasing. It would mean that the decrease is occurring now and is expected to continue. However, if the crime rate has already decreased or stopped, and you want to emphasize that fact, use decreased.

 

deforest keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-for-est/ [d.ih0.f.ao1.r.ah0.s.t]

Definition: Clear (an area) of forests or trees.

Example sentences:

  • Thirteen Buddhist pagodas, 17 schools, and several villages are now planting those trees in an attempt to restore a severely deforested area.

defy keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-fy/ [d.ih0.f.ay1]

Definition: resist or confront with resistance

Example sentences:

  • The effect almost makes it look as if one can defy gravity.
  • Scientists are often rewarded for delivering results that dazzle and defy expectation, but extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.

degradation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/degra-da-tion/ [d.eh2.g.r.ah0.d.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The condition or process of degrading or being degraded

Example sentences:

  • This riveting drama speaks to our souls with its incessant probes into the importance of human choice and the degradation brought on by self-destructiveness.

dehydrate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-hy-drate/ [d.ih0.hh.ay1.d.r.ey0.t]

Definition: Cause (a person or their body) to lose a large amount of water:

Example sentences:

  • When a person is dehydrated by more than 2% of body weight, both heart rate and body temperature are elevated during exercise.

delighted keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-light-ed/ [d.ih0.l.ay1.t.ah0.d]

Definition: greatly pleased

Example sentences:

  • His work shows that he delighted in using ballet for a multifaceted consideration of many aspects of existence.

demanding keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-mand-ing/ [d.ih0.m.ae1.n.d.ih0.ng]

The adjective form of demand is demanding.

When you say a person is demanding, you mean this person needs a lot of attention and is not easily pleased or satisfied or this person has very high standards. For example,

  • Young children can be very demanding

  • My boss is very demanding. He is very picky.

  • My grandma became very demanding as she got older.

When you say a job is demanding, you mean this job might require a lot of physical work, like farming, or a lot of patience and diplomacy. For example,

  • The work is physically demanding.

  • Software engineer jobs can be intellectually demanding.

demonstrate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/demon-strate/ [d.eh1.m.ah0.n.s.t.r.ey2.t]

When you demonstrate something, you show what it is or how it works. Here are examples:

  • To demonstrate a point you must make a valid argument and give examples of why you think it's true.
  • The students need to demonstrate that they can behave before we take them on a tour of the White House.

You can use the word 'demonstrate' or 'illustrate' when you give your responses for the TOEFL Integrated Speaking Task 4 and 6. Here are examples:

  •  The professor demonstrates the reward theory of attraction cost with two examples.
  •  The professor illustrates the idea of the opportunity cost with two examples. 
demonstrative keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/demon-stra-tive/ [d.ih0.m.aa1.n.s.t.r.ah0.t.ih0.v]

To demonstrate means to show, so think of demonstrative as showingPeople who are demonstrative easily and clearly show their emotions.

A demonstrative person might shout "Hooray" and jump for joy at good news. A non-demonstrative person might feel no less excited but refrain from demonstrating it. Here is an example sentence:

  • She is more demonstrative (about her feelings) than I am. [=she shows her feelings more openly than I do]
denounce keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-nounce/ [d.ih0.n.aw1.n.s]

Definition: Publicly declare to be wrong or evil:

Example sentences:

  • When money is denounced as the root of all evil, we should properly understand it not as banknotes but as bright, treacherous gold.

denticle keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/den-ti-cle/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A small tooth or tooth-like projection

Example sentences:

  • The other teeth do not show denticles because they are not well preserved.

deplete keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-plete/ [d.ih0.p.l.iy1.t]

To deplete means to use up or consume a limited resource. For example:

  • Increased irrigation depleted water resources.

 

We can paraphrase this sentence using the noun ‘depletion’.

  • Increased irrigation led to the depletion of water resources.

 

Here are more example sentences using “deplete”:

  • Overfishing is rapidly depleting fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are rapidly depleting the earth's ozone layer.
  • Trees are rapidly being depleted as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and depletes genetic resources.

 

Can you paraphrase them using “depletion”? Now let’s see my answer.

  • Overfishing is causing the rapid depletion of fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are causing the rapid depletion of the earth's ozone layer.
  • The rapid depletion of trees is occurring as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and leads to the depletion of genetic resources.
depletion keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-ple-tion/ [d.ih0.p.l.iy1.sh.ah0.n]

To deplete means to use up or consume a limited resource. For example:

  • Increased irrigation depleted water resources.

 

We can paraphrase this sentence using the noun ‘depletion’.

  • Increased irrigation led to the depletion of water resources.

 

Here are more example sentences using “deplete”:

  • Overfishing is rapidly depleting fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are rapidly depleting the earth's ozone layer.
  • Trees are rapidly being depleted as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and depletes genetic resources.

 

Can you paraphrase them using “depletion”? Now let’s see my answer.

  • Overfishing is causing the rapid depletion of fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are causing the rapid depletion of the earth's ozone layer.
  • The rapid depletion of trees is occurring as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and leads to the depletion of genetic resources.
deposit keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-posit/ [d.ah0.p.aa1.z.ih0.t]

Definition: A natural underground layer of rock, coal, or other material

Example sentences:

  • Mongolia, population 2.3 million, lives on mostly undeveloped land with so much mineral wealth that coal deposits sit on the desert surface.

descendant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-scen-dant/ [d.ih0.s.eh1.n.d.ah0.n.t]

A descendant is someone who has come down from someone else, for example, an ancestor. You are a descendant of your grandparents. As an adjective, descendant means going down. Notice the root word, descend which means to go down. This is helpful to remember the meaning of the word. Let's look at example sentences:

  • The first human inhabitants of Meso-America were descendants of Asian peoples who crossed the Bering land bridge.​
  • The Native American Trade is the trade between Europeans, their North American descendants, and the indigenous people of North America known as Native Americans in the United States,
designate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/des-ig-nate/ [d.eh1.z.ah0.g.n.ey2.t]

Definition: to specify, name, or select to do a task

Example sentences:

  • The boy is being tried for murder in the juvenile court system, but has been designated as an adult.

deter keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-ter/ [d.ih0.t.er1]

Definition: Discourage (someone) from doing something by instilling doubt or fear of the consequences

Example sentences:

  • All the academic evidence suggests fear of debt deters people from less prosperous backgrounds.

deteriorate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-te-ri-o-rate/ [d.ih0.t.ih1.r.iy0.er0.ey2.t]

Uses as the intransitive verb, deteriorate” means getting worse. The environment can deteriorate as well, due to human activity. For example

  • The global environment is deteriorating at an unprecedented rate.

The health and weather can deteriorate as well. For example:

  • My health began to deteriorate quite seriously.
  • The weather gradually deteriorated as the day went on.

Uses as the transitive verb, “deteriorate” mean making something worse. For example

  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have deteriorated the quality of wildlife habitats.

 

 

deterioration keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-te-ri-o-ra-tion/ [d.ih0.t.ih1.r.iy0.er0.ey2.sh.ah0.n]

If something is in a state of deterioration, it’s getting worse. Here are example sentences:

  • Major pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and other chemical wastes are causing the deterioration of air quality.
  • Landfills discharge various kinds of chemicals on the land adjacent to forest and various natural habitats, resulting in the deterioration of soil.
  • Mental and physical deterioration both occur naturally with age.

 

The noun 'deterioration' is the noun of "deteriorate". In sentences containing the word "deteriorate", We can paraphrase using the noun “deterioration”. For example:

The sentence

  • The global environment is deteriorating at an unprecedented rate.

Can be paraphrased to

  • Deterioration of the global environment is happening faster than ever before.

 

The sentence

  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have deteriorated the quality of wildlife habitats.

Can be paraphrased to

  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have resulted in the deterioration of the quality of wildlife habitats.

detrimental keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/detri-men-tal/ [d.eh2.t.r.ah0.m.eh1.n.t.ah0.l]

Detrimental is a formal way of saying "harmful." If you're writing a paper and want to pick an alternative to harmful that sounds more formal, detrimental is a great choice. The phrases 'be detrimental to'  and "have a detrimental effect/impact on something" are often used. Here are example sentences:

  • These chemicals have a detrimental effect/impact on the environment.
  • Their decision could be detrimental to the future of the company.
  • Smoking is detrimental to your health.
  • Eating too much sugar can be detrimental to your health.
  • Watching too much TV is detrimental to a child's intellectual and social development.
  • Watching too much TV has a detrimental impact on child's intellectual and social development.​
devout keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-vout/ [d.ih0.v.aw1.t]

Definition: Having or showing deep religious feeling or commitment

Example sentences:

  • When I was brought back to faith it was through the prayers of my devout mother.

differ keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dif-fer/ [d.ih1.f.er0]
ondemand_video

"Differmeans to be different from something else. You will often see the following patterns with the word differ

  • A differ/differs from B
  • A differ/differs from B to B
  • _________ (multiple similar things) differ in C

 

The first one  “A differ/differs from B” means A is different from B. For example,

  • English differs from Spanish in that it is not pronounced as it is written.
  • Korean cuisine differs from English cuisine because it is much spicier.

 

Notice the preposition “in” in the first sentence. The pattern is

A differ/differs from B in ___ (what aspect is difference)

So you can change the second sentence to

  • Korean cuisine differs from English cuisine in that it is much spicier.

 

Okay! Let’s look at the next pattern “A differ/differs from B to B”. It means [A] is different for every [B]. In this case, it is the same as ‘A vary/varies from B to B’. Here are example sentences:

  • Laws on pollution differ widely from country to country.
  • Textbooks differ from school to school.

 

The third pattern is ‘___ (a group of similar things) differ in C”.  This pattern means C is the characteristic that identifies the difference among a group of similar things. Here is an example sentence:

  • Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ greatly in social and sexual behaviors.

differentiate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dif-fer-en-ti-ate/ [d.ih2.f.er0.eh1.n.sh.iy0.ey2.t]
ondemand_video

To differentiate is to identify the differences between things. You often see two patterns with the word "differentiate".

  • differentiate between A and B
  • sth. differentiates A from B

 

The pattern “differentiate between A and B” means to see or show a difference between A and B. For example,

  • Joe is color-blind and cannot differentiate between red and green.
  • The camouflage of octopuses makes it difficult for their predators to differentiate between them and rocks.   

 

But “sth. differentiates A from B” means A has the quality or feature that makes A different from B. For example,

  • The ability to speak differentiates humans from other animals.
  • Although both whales and sharks are aquatic animals, the fact that whales are mammals differentiates whales from sharks.
diffuse keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dif-fuse/ [d.ih0.f.y.uw1.s]

The word "diffuse" can be a verb or an adjective.

If a gas, heat or liquid diffuses or is diffused, it becomes spread widely in all directions. For example:

  • The heat from the radiator diffuses throughout the room.
  • The drop of red dye diffused slowly in the water.
  • The heat was diffused throughout the room.

If a gas or a substance diffuses or is diffused through something, it means to move and spread through it. For example

  • Oxygen diffuses from the lungs into the bloodstream.
  • Cell membranes are very thin to allow materials to diffuse through them easily.
  • Oxygen diffuses through the cell membrane.
  • Nicotine diffuses slowly and steadily into the bloodstream

 

If something such as knowledge or information is diffused or diffuses somewhere, it is made known over a wide area or to a lot of people. You will also see the usages of "diffuse knowledge or information". Here are example sentences:

  • The Asian culture gradually diffused westward.
  • Technologies diffuse rapidly.
  • As agriculture developed, agricultural ideas diffused across Europe.
  • Over time, the technology is diffused and adopted by other countries.

 

If something diffuses light, it makes the light shine less brightly by spreading it in many directions. For example:

  • The photographer uses a screen to diffuse the light.
  • The moon was fuller than the night before, but the light was diffused by cloud.

 

The word "diffuse" can be used an adjective to describe something that is spread out or to describe a speech or writing that is vague and unclear. For example:

  • The forest was filled with a soft, diffuse light.
  • A diffuse speech is scattered and unclear.
  • His writing is so diffuse and obscure that it is difficult to make out what it is he is trying to say.
digestive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/di-ges-tive/ [d.ay0.jh.eh1.s.t.ih0.v]

Definition: Relating to the process of digesting food:

Example sentences:

  • Symptoms include increased blood pressure, cancers of the mouth and upper digestive system.

dilemma keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dilem-ma/ [d.ih0.l.eh1.m.ah0]

A dilemma is a tough choice. When you are in a situation with two options, and neither of them is very good, you are in a dilemma

An example of a dilemma is when you have plans to go to a concert, but you get really sick. Your options are to skip the concert you were really looking forward to, or go to the concert but feel miserable. You are in a dilemma because either option isn’t going to bring you much happiness.

You can use this word in your speaking responses for the TOEFL Integrated Speaking Task 5. For example:

  • The male student in the conversation is in a dilemma. He doesn't know what to do with his due assignments.

The phrases 'face a dilemma' and 'in a dilemma' are often used. Here are example sentences:

  • Women may still be faced with the dilemma of choosing between jobs and families.
  • I don't know what to do; it's a real dilemma.
  • She faced a dilemma about whether to accept the offer or not.
  • After years of recession, the company was in a dilemma over its future.

The collocations 'a solution to a dilemma ' and 'a way out of a dilemma ' are often used. Here are example sentences:

  • One possible solution to the dilemma may be to divide the money equally between the brothers.
  • I couldn't see any way out of the dilemma.

The usage of "the dilemma over a debatable subject" is often used. For example:

  • The dilemma over human cloning lies at the heart of the ethical choices facing society.

 

dim keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dim/ [d.ih1.m]

Definition: not bright or clear

Example sentences:

  • The sun looks dim through the haze, like a 30-watt bulb.
  • In recent weeks, market expectations of a July rate hike have dimmed because of signs of weakness in the global economy.

disadvantage keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-ad-van-tage/ [d.ih2.s.ah0.d.v.ae1.n.t.ih0.jh]
ondemand_video

The definition of the noun "disadvantage" reads as follows: A disadvantage is a quality or condition that puts something or someone in an unfavorable or inferior position compared to others.

We often use “disadvantage” to talk about the shortcoming of a thing or a person. For instance, the following three sentences use disadvantage to describe a shortcoming of living in the countryside:

  • The disadvantage of living in the countryside is the poor quality of education.
  • One disadvantage of living in the countryside is the poor quality of education.
  • One of the disadvantages of living in the countryside is the poor quality of education.

 

However, only if disadvantage is used in the very beginning of a sentence we say ‘disadvantage of something’. When using expletive constructions like “There is/are” it would sound wrong or unnatural to say “There are many disadvantages of living in the countryside. Many students make this mistake. Here you should use the prepositions in/to as in the following two sentences:

  • There are many disadvantages to living in the countryside.
  • There are many disadvantages in living in the countryside.

To make it easier, we often paraphrase here and simply say:

  • Living in the countryside has many disadvantages.

 

The word disadvantage is often used in the following phrases:

  • At a disadvantage
  • To one’s disadvantage (= work to one’s disadvantage)

 

The phrase “at a disadvantage” means being in an unfavorable position in comparison to others. We often use adjectives like ‘competitive’, ‘clear’ and ‘distinct’ before the word "disadvantage". For example,

  • At a clear disadvantage
  • At a distinct disadvantage
  • At a competitive disadvantage

Notice ‘competitive’ is often used when the subject is related to the business world.

 

Alright! So how do we use the phrase ‘at a disadvantage’? The phrase ‘at a disadvantage’ can be used in the following sentence patterns:

  • _____ (something)  puts/places ____ (someone or something) at a disadvantage.
  • ____ (someone or something) is at a disadvantage.

 

Here are example sentences for the first sentence pattern:

  • His lack of formal education puts him at a clear disadvantage in the business world.
  • The new tariff policy will place my company at a competitive disadvantage in the marketplace.

 

And, here are example sentences for the second sentence pattern:

  • You'll be at a disadvantage playing tennis against someone as skilled as Jimmy.
  • Children from poor families are at a distinct disadvantage in education.


 

Okay! Now let’s look at the phrase ‘to one’s disadvantage’. If something is to your disadvantage or works to your disadvantage, it creates difficulties for you. So

 

___ (something) is to ___(one’s) disadvantage = ___ (something) works to ___(one’s) disadvantage = ___ (something) puts ___(someone) at a disadvantage

 

Here are examples

  • My lack of formal education is to my disadvantage in the business world.
  • I hope my lack of experience won't be to my disadvantage.
  • It is to your disadvantage to not take this opportunity.
  • The new tariff policy will work to our disadvantage.
disadvantageous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-ad-van-ta-geous/ [d.ih2.s.ae2.d.v.ae2.n.t.ey1.jh.ah0.s]
ondemand_video

The adjective “disadvantageous” describes things that cause somebody or something to be in a worse situation compared to others. Here are examples:

  • We have to resell the property at a disadvantageous time.
  • Minority groups find themselves in a disadvantageous position.​

 

Also, we often see the phrase ‘be disadvantageous to’.  For example,

  • Living off campus is disadvantageous to students.
  • The company believes the new regulation is disadvantageous to the growth of its business.
discernible keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-cernible/ [d.ih0.s.er1.n.ah0.b.ah0.l]

Definition: noticeable; easily seen

Example sentences:

  • The lack of any discernible weakness may be his greatest strength.
  • You are taking a whole lot of risk for no discernible reason.
  • As for Hong Kong’s role as a global business and financial centre, last year’s sit-ins had even less discernible impact.

discredit keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-cred-it/ [d.ih0.s.k.r.eh1.d.ah0.t]

Definition: Cause (an idea or account) to seem false or unreliable:

Example sentences:

  • Can we expect to defeat terrorism without also discrediting the ideas and passions that underlie it?

discrimination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-crim-i-na-tion/ [d.ih0.s.k.r.ih2.m.ah0.n.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex

Example sentences:

  • His attorneys argued the different treatment represents discrimination against gays and lesbians and is unconstitutional

disparity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-par-i-ty/ [d.ih0.s.p.eh1.r.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: A great difference

Example sentences:

  • Income and standards of living disparities in different regions of the country have become a growing problem.

dispersion keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-per-sion/ [d.ih0.s.p.er1.zh.ah0.n]

The noun "dispersion" is the act of dispersing. The verb "disperse" means to disappear in all different directions or to cause something to disappear in all different directions

Here are example sentences using dissipation:

  • In the dispersion of seeds, birds play an indispensable role.
  • A refraction is the dispersion of white light into its individual colors by a glass prism. 
  • Dispersion of light through a prism produces a spectrum of colors.
disposition keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-po-si-tion/ [d.ih2.s.p.ah0.z.ih1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: A person’s inherent qualities of mind and character

Example sentences:

  • There must be hundreds, thousands of words, which quite aptly describe persons of certain dispositions.

disruptive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-rup-tive/ [d.ih0.s.r.ah1.p.t.ih0.v]

Definition: Causing or tending to cause disruption:

Example sentences:

  • Frequent meetings can be disruptive at work

disseminate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-sem-i-nate/ [d.ih0.s.eh1.m.ah0.n.ey2.t]

The verb disseminate is a transitive verb. Disseminate means to spread information, knowledge, opinions widely. 

Example sentences using the word disseminate:

  • The Internet allows us to disseminate information/news/ideas faster.
  • It took years to disseminate information about Aids in Africa
  • One of the organization's aims is to disseminate information about the disease.​

Disseminate vs propagate 

Disseminate and propagate both have the meaning of spreading information to the public. However,  "disseminate" implies scattering information widely as if sowing seed, whereas "propagate" implies making people in public accept an idea and be followers.

dissipate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-si-pate/ [d.ih1.s.ah0.p.ey2.t]

As an intransitive verb,  the verb "dissipate" means to slowly disappear and become a small amount.  Here is an example sentence:

  • The heat gradually dissipates into the atmosphere.

As a transitive verb,  the verb "dissipate" means to cause something to slowly disappear and become a small amount.  Here is an example sentence:

  • Engineers design the cable support systems of the suspension bridge in such a way that most of the weight of the bridge is supported by the two towers, which in turn dissipate the compression forces from the cables directly into the ground.

 

 

dissolve keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-solve/ [d.ih0.z.aa1.l.v]

When a substance dissolves, it means it disappears - it mixes with a liquid and becomes part of the liquid. For example:

  • Sugar dissolves in water.

You can also say “Water dissolves sugar.” So “sugar dissolves in water” or “water dissolves sugar.

 

distillation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-til-la-tion/ [d.ih2.s.t.ah0.l.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling:

Example sentences:

  • There are several ways of obtaining the oil, the most common being steam distillation.

distinctive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tinc-tive/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.k.t.ih0.v]

Distinctive is used to say that one person or thing has a quality that makes this person/thing noticeably different from others. It carries a meaning of "special". Here are examples:

  • He had a distinctive walk.
  • This wine has a more distinctive flavor than that one.
  • This cooking style is distinctive [=characteristic] of this region

 

Someone with distinctive features has features that set them "apart" from others. For example,

  • Her big eyes and plump lips are distinctive features that make her a great model.

 

You often use distinctive to describe things that are amazing and that you would never forget. For example,

  • I always remember her distinctive blue eyes.
distinguish keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tin-guish/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.g.w.ih0.sh]

To distinguish means to tell apart.  Here is an example

  • Twins are often difficult to distinguish because they look so similar. 

You often see the following two patterns with the word "distinguish".

  • distinguish (the difference) between A and B​​

  • distinguish A from B

Here are example sentences:

  • I have trouble distinguishing the difference between the two of them.

  • You should be able to distinguish fact from fantasy.

  • If you win the lottery, you’re going to need to learn to distinguish between people who really like you and people who like your money. 

 

To distinguish also means to make (someone or something) different or special in some way.  Here are examples:

  • The singer's voice is what distinguishes the band.

  • The recipe is distinguished by its simplicity.

  • Our excellent customer service distinguishes us from our competitors.

 

If someone distinguishes oneself, he or she does something very well or in a way that deserves special recognition. For example,

  • She has distinguished herself as a leader in the community.
distinguishable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tin-guish-able/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.g.w.ih0.sh.ah0.b.ah0.l]

"Distinguishable"  means noticeable.  The prepositions “by” and “from” are often used with the word distinguishable. Take a look at the examples with the prepositions below:

  • The animal is easily distinguishable by the black stripes above its eye.
  • The male bird is barely distinguishable from the female.
  • The one chocolate doughnut in the box will be easily distinguishable from the plain doughnuts.
  • In some people with color blindness, red isn't distinguishable from green.
  • I am looking for a distinguishable dress for my daughter’s wedding, I really want to stand out.”

 

distinguished keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tin-guished/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.g.w.ih0.sh.t]

Being distinguished is a good thing: it implies good behavior, sharp dress, and an excellent reputation. Distinguished people are respected. When we say someone is distinguished, we're expressing respect for them. Usually, someone distinguished is older: distinguished people are wise, accomplished, and professional-looking — and usually have an impressive reputation to match. A teenager can't really be distinguished. They're too young to look the part, and they haven't done enough to earn the title. We admire people who are distinguished.

 

distorted keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tort-ed/ [d.ih0.s.t.ao1.r.t.ah0.d]

Distorted is an adjective that describes something so badly out of shape, or misformed that it is ugly. For example, if you visit a funhouse at a carnival, they may have a crazy mirror that makes your face look distorted.

Distorted can be having an intended meaning that was misrepresented. For example, if you wanted to ask for a raise because you worked hard, but your boss thinks you want a raise because you are greedy, your message is distorted.

 

divergent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/di-ver-gent/ [d.ay0.v.er1.jh.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Tending to be different or develop in different directions

Example senences:

  • The virtues sought in a deputy are sometimes quite divergent from those sought in a leader.

diversify keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/di-ver-si-fy/ [d.ay0.v.er1.s.ah0.f.ay2]

To diversify means to have more different kinds of people or things.

  • The country should diversify its energy sources.
  • Farmers need to diversify their crops.
  • Local agriculture has been diversified by the addition of peanuts and melons.
  • Recently the economy has successfully been diversified into textiles, tourism, banking, and business outsourcing.

Diversify is often used to discuss risk in financial activities.

  • You might diversify your investments by spreading your wealth among different types of stocks.

If you want to diversify your interests, that means you want to mix it up and do more than just play Dungeons and Dragons all the time — you might become active in sports, theater, and the math club.

When a company diversify, it means increasing the variety of goods, services, or range of operations

  • Many publishing companies have diversified into online services.
  • Our company expanded rapidly and diversified into computers.

 

divert keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/di-vert/ [d.ay0.v.er1.t]

Definition: Cause (someone or something) to change course or turn from one direction to another

Example sentences:

  • Another method employs moveable flaps in the rocket motor to divert the exhaust flow direction.

documented keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/doc-u-ment-ed/ [d.aa1.k.y.ah0.m.eh2.n.t.ah0.d]

Definition: proven with written evidence

Example sentences:

  • Even when the right work is done and documented, analysts don’t always have good resources for managing the intellectual property they create.

domesticate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/do-mes-ti-cate/ [d.ah0.m.eh1.s.t.ah0.k.ey2.t]

To domesticate is to bring animals or plants under human control in order to provide food, power, or company. Domestication is the process of domesticating. Here are example sentences:

  • Dogs were probably the first animals to be domesticated.
  • Through the years of domestication of wheat, there have been several objectives that strive toward making it more productive.
  • Most historians believe that animal husbandry began with the domestication of wild dogs.
dominance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dom-i-nance/ [d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.s]

Similar to the verbs, the noun “dominance” means power and influence over others. And “predominancemeans the state or condition of being most common. Let’s look an example:

  • The ongoing and increasing dominance of English in world culture and commerce will continue to provide many advantages to Britain in many areas.

Here we imply “There is a greater influence of English over other languages in world culture”.

If we replace “dominance” with “predominance” like the following sentence

  • The ongoing and increasing predominance of English in world culture and commerce will continue to provide many advantages to Britain in many areas.

We imply “There is a greater commonness of English over other languages in world culture

So we can change dominance to predominance in this sentence but it changes the meaning slightly from “English being influential” to “English being widespread”.

 

Let’s look at another example using predominance

  • There is a predominance of older people in the neighborhood. (This means there is a greater number of older people in the neighborhood)

 

Please note that the noun “dominance” isn’t really used for the state or condition of being the most common. So, the following sentence is incorrect

  • There is a dominance of older people in the neighborhood. (incorrect)

 

However, since the verb “dominate” can be used in the sense of “to be common”, you could use the verb ”dominate” here,

  •  Older people dominate this neighborhood.

 

Alright! Here are more examples using “predominance”:

  • Despite the predominance of female teachers in school, administrative positions are held mostly by men. = Despite most of the teachers in school being women, administrative positions are held mostly by men.
  • The predominance of individualist feminism in English-speaking countries is a historical phenomenon.
  • There is an overwhelming predominance of female images in prehistoric art.

 

Okay! As we know that “”dominance” means the power and influence over others, so the phrase “gain dominance” is often used. For example:

  • Hollywood continues to gain dominance in the international film market. = Hollywood’s dominance in the international film market continuously increases.

 

dominant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dom-i-nant/ [d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.t]

The adjective "dominant" means most influential, having the greatest importance. The word “predominant” also means most influential, having the greatest importance, but native speakers wouldn’t normally write or say it like that.  Let’s look at the following sentences where the two words are used interchangeably in the same context:

  • Newspapers play a dominant role in shaping public opinion.
  • Newspapers play a predominant role in shaping public opinion.

Both sentences are correct, but the first sentence is recommended. Why? Because we want to talk about the influence newspapers have, so we should use dominant. Here the meaning of dominant is “influential”. 

 

Dominant also means most common. Like the word “dominant”, the word “predominant” also means 'most frequent' or 'most common'. Let’s look at the following sentence where the two words are used interchangeably in the same context:

  • The most predominant color in this room is beige. (However, you could also say the dominant color in this room is beige).

What we want to say is that beige is the color mostly used in the room. However, here many people use dominant as well, especially when we mean that the beige color gives the room an overall atmosphere.

So you could also say “the dominant color in this room is beige”.
 

However, in genetics, Only the adjective dominant can describe characteristics which are heritable even if only one parent carries the genes for those characteristics.  For example:

  • (Correct!) Brown hair is a dominant trait. (This means brown hair is dominant) 
  • (Incorrect!) Brown hair is a predominant trait.

Let's look at more examples using the word "dominant".

  • The university has/plays a dominant role in the local economy.
  • Money is the dominant force in consumer societies.
domination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dom-i-na-tion/ [d.aa2.m.ah0.n.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

The noun “domination” is different from “dominance”. Dominance means “the condition of being dominant”, which basically means “have power or influence over others”.

The noun domination is the "act of dominating sb/sth or the condition of being dominated”.

Did you notice the difference? Let’s look at some examples using domination.

  • It wasn’t until the First World War that the U.S began to seriously challenge the British domination of South Africa.
  • European domination of India led to a rise in Indian nationalism.

So why do we use domination here? Because here we want to emphasize the act of dominating sth. For instance, in “European domination of India” we are implying that Europe actually exerts its power over India by military and economic means.

 

The terms “political domination”,“market domination”, “economic domination” and “military domination” are often used. Here are example sentences:

  • The most effective method for market domination is to create a niche market.
  • You're more likely to succeed at market domination if your business faces little or no competition.
  • Political domination is a crucial aspect of colonialism.

 

dormant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dor-mant/ [d.ao1.r.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: (Of an animal) having normal physical functions suspended or slowed down for a period of time; in or as if in a deep sleep

Example senences:

  • An animal prepares for hibernation by building up a thick layer of body fat during late summer and autumn that will provide it with energy during the dormant period. During hibernation, the animal undergoes many physiological changes, including decreased heart rate (by as much as 95%) and decreased body temperature.
  • Dormant volcanos are the volcanos that scientists consider possible to erupt again.

drab keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/drab/ [d.r.ae1.b]

Definition: lacking brightness or color; dull

Example sentences:

  • As mentioned earlier, the offense lacked any real spark and the game ended in a drab 0-0 draw.
  • His hat matched his light brown, drab overcoat.

dromedary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/drom-e-dary/ [d.r.aa1.m.ah0.d.eh2.r.iy0]

Definition: An Arabian camel, especially one of a light and swift breed trained for riding or racing.

Example sentences:

  • The finds suggest that the massive dromedary - or single-humped camel - was hunted by prehistoric people, the researchers add.

dune keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dune/ [d.uw1.n]

Definition: a mound of sand formed by the wind, usually along the beach or in a desert

Example sentences:

  • Every dune has a windward side and a slip face.

dwell keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dwell/ [d.w.eh1.l]

If a species or a person dwells somewhere, it means it or he lives there. For example:

  • An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between the clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of sea anemones
  • Many nomads dwell in forests.
  • In ancient Greek mythology, Mount Olympus was the dwelling place of the gods. [=the place where the gods lived]

If you dwell on something, especially something unpleasant, you think, speak, or write about it a lot or for quite a long time. For example:

  • I'd rather not dwell on the past.​
dwelling keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dwelling/ [d.w.eh1.l.ih0.ng]

A dwelling is housing, or the place where someone lives. Here is an example sentence:

  • Mesolithic Britain was thought to have been inhabited by hunter-gatherers, however, the recent excavation of a dwelling in Northumbria reveals our Stone Age ancestors to have been ingenious and elaborate house builders.​
deadlock keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dead-lock/ [d.eh1.d.l.aa2.k]

Use the noun deadlock to describe a standstill when two people or sides, cannot move beyond a disagreement. One example would be in a business arrangement. If you cannot get past a deadlock disagreement, you likely won’t be able to do business with the other party.

The phrase "reached a deadlock", "end in deadlock", and "break the deadlock" are often used. Here are example sentences:

Example sentences:

  • Negotiations ended in deadlock.
  • They called for a compromise on all sides to break the deadlock in the world trade talks.
  • Peace talks between the two sides ended in deadlock last month.
  • The talks have reached a complete deadlock.
  • The strike appeared to have reached a deadlock.
debris keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-bris/ [d.ah0.b.r.iy1]

Definition: Scattered pieces of rubbish or remains

Example sentences:

  • Workmen were clearing the roads of the debris from shattered buildings.

deceptively keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-cep-tive-ly/ [d.ih0.s.eh1.p.t.ih0.v.l.iy0]

Definition: in a misleading way

Example sentences:

  • The action also states some customers were deceptively enrolled in these programs and that some services promised weren't provided.

decipher keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-ci-pher/ [d.ih0.s.ay1.f.er0]

If you decipher a piece of writing or a message, you work out what it sayseven though it is very difficult to read or understand.  Here are example sentences:

  • The inscription on the stone could help decipher the hieroglyphs.
  • I'm still no closer to deciphering the code.
decline keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-cline/ [d.ih0.k.l.ay1.n]

Definition: become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease:

Example senences:

  • Both national and community studies have shown that physical activity decreases after early adulthood and continues to decline after age 50. Housing prices in general continued to decline in April, with a drop of 7.1 per cent.

decompose keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-com-pose/ [d.iy2.k.ah0.m.p.ow1.z]

Definition: (With reference to a dead body or other organic matter) make or become rotten; decay or cause to decay:

Example sentences:

  • It takes several weeks or longer, depending upon the size, for the body to completely decompose.

decreased keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-creased/ [d.ih0.k.r.iy1.s.t]

Difference between “decreasing” and “decreased”

When something is decreasing, it means that this thing continues to become less or smaller; however, when something has decreased, it means that thing has now stopped decreasing.

Let’s further look at the difference between “decreasing” and “decreased” in the following example sentences:

  • The patient has a decreasing appetite.
  • The patient has a decreased appetite.

As you just saw, both words can be used in the sentence; but"decreasing" would suggest that patient’s appetite continues to get lower, whereas "decreased" would suggest it has now stopped and reached a lower level than it was before.

Let’s consider another example:

  • Canada has reported a decreasing crime rate in their major cities.
  • Canada has seen a decreased crime rate in their major cities.

Can you think about the meaning in these sentences?  Also, can you think about when to correctly use these words in sentences?

Let’s further take a look at how to use these words to mean different things in the following example:

If the crime rate is still decreasing or getting lower, use decreasing. It would mean that the decrease is occurring now and is expected to continue. However, if the crime rate has already decreased or stopped, and you want to emphasize that fact, use decreased.

 

deep keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/deep/ [d.iy1.p]

Definition: far below surface; complete understanding

Example sentences:

  • She would take a deep, shuddering breath and let it out in a sigh.

deforestation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-for-esta-tion/ [d.ih0.f.ao2.r.ih0.s.t.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use.

degenerative keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-gen-er-a-tive/ [d.ih0.jh.eh1.n.er0.ah0.t.ih0.v]

Definition: (Of a disease) characterized by progressive deterioration and loss of function in the organs or tissues.

Example sentences:

  • This damage impairs the immune system, leading to infections, cancer, or degenerative diseases such as heart disease.

degrade keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-grade/ [d.ih0.g.r.ey1.d]

Definition: Lower the character or quality of

Example sentences:

  • Decades of harmful land use practices have degraded water quality in much of the species' historic habitat, leaving only a few remnant populations.

delicate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/del-i-cate/ [d.eh1.l.ah0.k.ah0.t]

Definition: needing careful treatment; sensitive

Example sentences:

  • Proposals to drill for oil have also triggered concerns about threats to the region’s delicate ecology.

demand keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-mand/ [d.ih0.m.ae1.n.d]

The word ‘demand’ has a general meaning of an urgent request, but when the word demand is used in a phrase, the meaning of the phrase varies. Let’s look at the following phrases with the word ‘demand’.

  • Make demands on
  • By popular demands
  • in demand
  • on demand

 

The first phrase is “make demands on”.  When you say A makes demands on B, you mean A is a lot for B to deal with. For example:

  • This software program makes heavy demands on the computer’s memory.
  • Enforcing the current law is making ridiculous demands on police.

 

The next phrase is “by popular demand”.  “By popular demand” means because a lot of people have asked for it. For example,

  • The circus will be back by popular demand later this summer

essentially means

  • The circus will be back later this summer because a lot of people have asked for it to come back.

Here is another example

  • By popular demand, HBO has promised fans 4 spin-off TV series from Game of Thrones.

 

Okay! The next phrase ”in demand”. When we say A is in demand,  we mean A is wanted by a lot of people. So for example:

  • Our products are in demand all over the world.

Basically means

  • Our products are wanted by a lot of people all over the world.

 

Often people are confused about “in demand” and “on demand”. As we just said,

In demand” means “something is wanted by a lot of people”. On the other hand, “On demand” means “whenever people want it”. Look at the following examples

  • Some people believe that wifi should be available on demand at school
  • We can’t simply make cosmetic surgery available on demand.

 

Another word you often see is the adjective ‘on-demand’. It describes something that is available whenever a customer asks for it. Notice there is a hyphen in the middle. Let’s look at some examples

  • Our company will sell a voice recognition product as an on-demand service for our users.
  • Most people in Africa do not have television, let alone on-demand movies.

 

On-demand can also be a noun. It means a service for watching films and TV programs at any time. For example,

  • Cable customers pay $9.95 a month for on-demand

 

The word ‘demand’ is often used as an economic term, meaning "the amount of an item that is asked for in the market. In this case, it is often used with the preposition ‘for’. Here are example sentences:

  • Demand for organic food is increasing
  • With the increasing population, we need to find out ways to cope with the increasing demand for food and water.
  • Apple sold almost 5 million iPads during its March quarter and it still couldn't keep up with the demand for iPads.

 

The word demand can be a verb. When you demand, you request urgently.

The following two patterns are often used.

  • A demands that B does something
  • A demands to do something

Here are examples

  • I demand that teachers give no homework on the weekend
  • My boss demanded that the work to be done tonight.
  • The customer demands to see our manager.
demise keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/demise/ [d.ih0.m.ay1.z]

Demise is simply the end; whether it be death, or termination. Here are example sentences:

  • The demise of the government began when the president was caught stealing.
  • The deer had a slow demise after it was hit by a car.

 

demonstration keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/demon-stra-tion/ [d.eh2.m.ah0.n.s.t.r.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

A demonstration is a show or display. If you are against the war, you might go to an anti-war demonstration in front of the White House. Crying is a demonstration of your feelings.

If you sell website design you can make a demonstration site, or demo, so clients can see what they would get if they hired you.

If you attend a home and garden fair, you may see a demonstration of the best way to pull weeds.

 

denote keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-note/ [d.ih0.n.ow1.t]

Definition: Be a sign of; indicate:

Example sentences:

  • The council has carried out risk assessments on all restricted areas and has reopened nearly three-quarters of the pathways - identified by a pink sign denoting a right of way.

dense keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dense/ [d.eh1.n.s]

Dense can have many different meanings.  When woods are dense, the trees grow close together. When fog is dense, you can't see through it.  “The forest was so dense; we decided not to go on the hike.”

Example sentences using the word dense:

  • They cut a path through the dense jungle.
  • The book's pages were dense (meaning packed, filled) with helpful ideas.
  • I'm sorry to be so dense (meaning to be slow-witted, stupid, dumb) this morning.
  • In the movie, she plays his kind but somewhat dense aunt.
  • That part of the city has a dense population of immigrants.
deodorize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-odor-ize/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Remove or conceal an unpleasant smell in

Example sentences:

  • People used dried flowers to deodorize their homes

deplete keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-plete/ [d.ih0.p.l.iy1.t]

To deplete means to use up or consume a limited resource. For example:

  • Increased irrigation depleted water resources.

 

We can paraphrase this sentence using the noun ‘depletion’.

  • Increased irrigation led to the depletion of water resources.

 

Here are more example sentences using “deplete”:

  • Overfishing is rapidly depleting fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are rapidly depleting the earth's ozone layer.
  • Trees are rapidly being depleted as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and depletes genetic resources.

 

Can you paraphrase them using “depletion”? Now let’s see my answer.

  • Overfishing is causing the rapid depletion of fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are causing the rapid depletion of the earth's ozone layer.
  • The rapid depletion of trees is occurring as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and leads to the depletion of genetic resources.
depletion keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-ple-tion/ [d.ih0.p.l.iy1.sh.ah0.n]

To deplete means to use up or consume a limited resource. For example:

  • Increased irrigation depleted water resources.

 

We can paraphrase this sentence using the noun ‘depletion’.

  • Increased irrigation led to the depletion of water resources.

 

Here are more example sentences using “deplete”:

  • Overfishing is rapidly depleting fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are rapidly depleting the earth's ozone layer.
  • Trees are rapidly being depleted as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and depletes genetic resources.

 

Can you paraphrase them using “depletion”? Now let’s see my answer.

  • Overfishing is causing the rapid depletion of fish populations.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are causing the rapid depletion of the earth's ozone layer.
  • The rapid depletion of trees is occurring as land is being cleared for agricultural activities and urbanization.
  • Loss of biodiversity diminishes the adaptability of the ecosystem and leads to the depletion of genetic resources.
deposition keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-po-si-tion/ [d.eh2.p.ah0.z.ih1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The action of depositing something

Example senences:

  • These chemicals prevented normal calcium deposition during eggshell formation, and caused females to lay thin-shelled eggs that often broke before hatching. Pebbles formed by the deposition of calcium in solution.

desertification keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-ser-ti-fi-ca-tion/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture

Example senences:

  • The problems are global - poverty, air and water pollution, deforestation, desertification, overfishing, climate change - no country can confront these challenges alone.

destabilize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/desta-bi-lize/ [d.ih0.s.t.ey1.b.ah0.l.ay2.z]

Definition: Upset the stability of; cause unrest in

Example sentences:

  • The relationship has come to dominate British debates affecting domestic and foreign issues and has destabilized both Labour and Conservative parties

deteriorate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-te-ri-o-rate/ [d.ih0.t.ih1.r.iy0.er0.ey2.t]

Uses as the intransitive verb, deteriorate” means getting worse. The environment can deteriorate as well, due to human activity. For example

  • The global environment is deteriorating at an unprecedented rate.

The health and weather can deteriorate as well. For example:

  • My health began to deteriorate quite seriously.
  • The weather gradually deteriorated as the day went on.

Uses as the transitive verb, “deteriorate” mean making something worse. For example

  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have deteriorated the quality of wildlife habitats.

 

 

deterioration keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-te-ri-o-ra-tion/ [d.ih0.t.ih1.r.iy0.er0.ey2.sh.ah0.n]

If something is in a state of deterioration, it’s getting worse. Here are example sentences:

  • Major pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and other chemical wastes are causing the deterioration of air quality.
  • Landfills discharge various kinds of chemicals on the land adjacent to forest and various natural habitats, resulting in the deterioration of soil.
  • Mental and physical deterioration both occur naturally with age.

 

The noun 'deterioration' is the noun of "deteriorate". In sentences containing the word "deteriorate", We can paraphrase using the noun “deterioration”. For example:

The sentence

  • The global environment is deteriorating at an unprecedented rate.

Can be paraphrased to

  • Deterioration of the global environment is happening faster than ever before.

 

The sentence

  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have deteriorated the quality of wildlife habitats.

Can be paraphrased to

  • Runoffs of agricultural wastes, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides into marine and freshwater environments have resulted in the deterioration of the quality of wildlife habitats.

determined keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-ter-mined/ [d.ih0.t.er1.m.ah0.n.d]

Definition: strong in one's opinion, firm in conviction to find out

Example sentences:

  • Olympic athletes are some of the most determined people you're going to meet. At that level, they've got to be driven to succeed. Otherwise, their opponents will surely beat them.
  • As much as we are determined to preserve those memories, the reality is that the visitor’s experience at One World Observatory is about looking forward.

deviant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/de-viant/ [d.iy1.v.iy0.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Differing from a norm or from the accepted standards of a society.

Example sentences:

dictate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dic-tate/ [d.ih0.k.t.ey1.t]

Definition: issue commands or orders for

Example senences:

  • Decide today to use logic to dictate your financial strategies and emotion to motivate yourself to stick to it.
  • Fluctuating real estate values, immigration patterns and shifting consumer needs dictate where shopping districts organically crop up and disappear.

 

different keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dif-fer-ent/ [d.ih1.f.er0.ah0.n.t]

"Different from" v.s "Different than"

“Different from” typically requires a noun or noun form to complete the expression. For example,

  • His car is different from mine.

  • These shoes are different from the ones I bought last year.

“Different than” is followed by a clause. For example,

  • This experience was different than he thought it would be.

  • My birthday this year was different than it was last year.

differentiation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dif-fer-en-ti-a-tion/ [d.ih0.f.er0.eh2.n.sh.iy0.ey1.sh.ah0.n]
ondemand_video

The noun form of ‘differentiate’ is differentiation. The noun 'differentiation' means the action or process of differentiating or distinguishing between two or more things or people.​

So the pattern of ‘differentiate between A and B’ can be paraphrased to “make a differentiation between A and B ”. For example,

  • Joe is color-blind and cannot differentiate between red and greenJoe is color-blind and cannot make a differentiation between red and green.

Other example sentences of the word ‘differentiation’ are as follows:

  • Product differentiation is an important aspect of a business.
  • Companies should work hard to achieve differentiation in products.
diffusion keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dif-fu-sion/ [d.ih0.f.y.uw1.zh.ah0.n]

Definition: The action of spreading the light from a light source evenly to reduce glare and harsh shadows;The dissemination of elements of culture to another region or people;The dissemination of elements of culture to another region or people:

Example senences:

  • Some parts are painted white to assist with light diffusion, but the essential texture and character of the material is still legible.
  • According to world culture theorists, the diffusion took place in three phases.

 

dignitary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dig-ni-tary/ [d.ih1.g.n.ah0.t.eh2.r.iy0]

Definition: an important or influential (and often overbearing) person

Example sentences:

  • More than 100 veterans and dignitaries also attended the ceremony on Friday, where a two-minute silence was held.

diligent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dili-gent/ [d.ih1.l.ih0.jh.ah0.n.t]

Definition: done with persistence and hard work; with attention to details

Example sentences:

  • Though rhythmically impeccable, the dancers looked constrained, almost too diligent, and in some cases not up to the work’s technical demands.
  • Diligent financial planners have probably already shifted some of their nest egg into more conservative investments in the years leading up to retirement.

diminish keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/di-min-ish/ [d.ih0.m.ih1.n.ih0.sh]

Definition: Make or become less

Example senences:

  • The propensity for people enriched by capital gains to borrow and spend is gradually diminishing.

 

disadvantaged keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-ad-van-taged/ [d.ih0.s.ah0.d.v.ae1.n.t.ih0.jh.d]
ondemand_video

The adjective ‘disadvantaged’ describes someone or something lacking the things (such as money or education) that are considered necessary for an equal position in society.

Therefore, people who are disadvantaged or live in disadvantaged areas live in bad conditions and lack a good education, resources, or reasonable standards of living.

Let’s look at some examples.

  • Research shows that men from disadvantaged backgrounds experience lower rates of marriage.
  • Nowadays employers are reaching beyond their usual networks and hire more people from disadvantaged populations.
  • Aborigines are the most disadvantaged ethnic group in Australia.
  • Scholarships, grants, and financial aid make studying abroad affordable for disadvantaged students.

 

Also, ‘disadvantaged’ is often used with adverbs like ‘socially’ and ‘economically’ as in the following sentences

  • Research shows economically disadvantaged children enter school with less developed cognitive skills than their peers.
  • In addition to higher smoking prevalence, socially disadvantaged workers smoke more heavily and are less successful in quitting smoking compared to other workers.
disapproval keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-ap-proval/ [d.ih0.s.ah0.p.r.uw1.v.ah0.l]

Definition: expression of an unfavorable opinion

Example sentences:

  • The diplomat explained that people were booing, an expression of disapproval.

discharge keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-charge/ [d.ih0.s.ch.aa1.r.jh]

Definition: Allow (a liquid, gas, or other substance) to flow out from where it has been confined

Example sentences:

  • The station was allowed to discharge sewage into the river during an emergency and was supposed to have alarms fitted to act as a warning when there had been a pump failure, but none of them worked.

discrete keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-crete/ [d.ih0.s.k.r.iy1.t]

Definition: Individually separate and distinct

Example sentences:

  • All of these may usually be discrete and distinct domains but one key theme of this chapter is that there are also overlaps.

disguise keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-guise/ [d.ih0.s.g.ay1.z]

Definition: make unrecognizable

Example sentences:

  • Her method of investigation has involved going undercover, adopting various disguises and secretly audio- and video-taping his subjects.
  • Most packaged cereals are calorie-bombs of powdered sugar disguised as a nutritious breakfast.

disperse keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-perse/ [d.ih0.s.p.er1.s]

As an intransitive verb,  the verb "disperse" means to disappear in all different directions. We use the verb "disperse" when we want to say something that can be seen like the crowd disappear in all different directions. For example:

  • The crowd dispersed after the race.
  • When the rain came down the crowds started to disperse.

As a transitive verb,  the verb "disperse" means to cause something that can be seen to disappear in all different directions.  For example:

  • Plants disperse their seeds over a wide area to increase their chances of growth and survival.
  • Once the seeds are released into the air, the wind quickly disperses them.
  • Wild grasses are adapted to disperse their seeds by releasing them once they are ripe.
display keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-play/ [d.ih0.s.p.l.ey1]

Definition: to show, make visible or apparent; something intended to communicate a particular impression

Example sentences:

  • Department store windows often have elaborate displays of the latest fashions.
  • People who grew up with a dog were 24 percent more likely as adults to display empathy toward other humans as adults.

disregard keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-re-gard/ [d.ih2.s.r.ih0.g.aa1.r.d]

Definition: Pay no attention to; ignore:

Example sentences:

  • They disregarded the no parking signs and were ticketed by the police

dissect keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-sect/ [d.ay0.s.eh1.k.t]

Definition: Methodically cut up (a body or plant) in order to study its internal parts

Example sentences:

  • From each plant one randomly chosen, fresh flower was dissected under a binocular microscope to separate the corolla, androecium and gynoecium.

dissemination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-sem-i-na-tion/ [d.ih0.s.eh2.m.ah0.n.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

The noun "dissemination" is the act of disseminating. The verb disseminate is a transitive verb. Disseminate means to spread information, knowledge, opinions widely. 

Here are example sentences using dissemination:

  • The dissemination of information is the most important aspect of a public relations person's job.
  • The Internet allows faster dissemination of information.
dissipation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-si-pa-tion/ [d.ih2.s.ih0.p.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

The noun "dissipation" is the act of dissipating. The verb "dissipate" means to slowly disappear and become a small amount or to cause something to slowly disappear and become a small amount. 

Here are example sentences using dissipation:

  • With the dissipation of the clouds, you could enjoy the sunny afternoon.
  • Insulation helps prevent the dissipation of heat from houses in the winter.
  • Charging batteries faster than a certain rate has issues with the dissipation of heat and ultimately degrades batteries' ability to retain a charge.​
dissolve keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-solve/ [d.ih0.z.aa1.l.v]

When a substance dissolves, it means it disappears - it mixes with a liquid and becomes part of the liquid. For example:

  • Sugar dissolves in water.

You can also say “Water dissolves sugar.” So “sugar dissolves in water” or “water dissolves sugar.

 

distinct keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tinct/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.k.t]

When something is distinct, it is easily identifiable or set apart from others of its kind. Here are examples

  • The license number of the getaway car was more distinct [=identifiable] ​once I cleaned my glasses.
  • He speaks with a distinct [=identifiable​] Southern accent.
  • The two plants are quite distinct (from one another).
  • Each herb has its own distinct flavor.

 

The word distinct comes from “to distinguish,” which is when a person or thing is set apart from the pack. Here is an example sentence:

  • The research that she did was distinct in its attention to detail.

 

The adjective 'distinct' is often used with the word 'advantage'. Here is an example sentence:

  • An eighth-grader who is six feet tall has a distinct advantage over the other kids on the basketball court. 

 

distinctly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tinct-ly/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.k.t.l.iy0]

Definition: (Used for emphasis) in a way that is very noticeable or apparent; decidedly:

Example sentences:

  • The film taken at face value leaves a distinctly bad taste in the mouth. two distinctly different cultures

distinguishable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tin-guish-able/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.g.w.ih0.sh.ah0.b.ah0.l]

"Distinguishable"  means noticeable.  The prepositions “by” and “from” are often used with the word distinguishable. Take a look at the examples with the prepositions below:

  • The animal is easily distinguishable by the black stripes above its eye.
  • The male bird is barely distinguishable from the female.
  • The one chocolate doughnut in the box will be easily distinguishable from the plain doughnuts.
  • In some people with color blindness, red isn't distinguishable from green.
  • I am looking for a distinguishable dress for my daughter’s wedding, I really want to stand out.”

 

distinguished keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tin-guished/ [d.ih0.s.t.ih1.ng.g.w.ih0.sh.t]

Being distinguished is a good thing: it implies good behavior, sharp dress, and an excellent reputation. Distinguished people are respected. When we say someone is distinguished, we're expressing respect for them. Usually, someone distinguished is older: distinguished people are wise, accomplished, and professional-looking — and usually have an impressive reputation to match. A teenager can't really be distinguished. They're too young to look the part, and they haven't done enough to earn the title. We admire people who are distinguished.

 

distort keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-tort/ [d.ih0.s.t.ao1.r.t]

Definition: twist and press out of shape; alter the shape of (something) by stress

Example sentences:

  • Time and space are distorted when traveling at the speed of light.

distribute keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dis-trib-ute/ [d.ih0.s.t.r.ih1.b.y.uw0.t]

Definition: Give shares of (something); deal out

Example sentences:

  • Information leaflets are being distributed to hotels and guest houses.

diverse keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/di-verse/ [d.ay0.v.er1.s]

Definition: many and different

Example senences:

  • Diverse, multicultural schools and communities can help children become familiar with people of other races, religions and cultures.

diversity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/di-ver-si-ty/ [d.ih0.v.er1.s.ih0.t.iy0]

When there's diversity, there's variety. Often, this word is used for diversity of race, class, or gender.

It is important for a workplace to have diversity, so there is a mix of opinions and ideas for how the workplace should succeed.

To have diversity, you need a mix of whatever you're talking about. If you like science fiction, romantic comedies, cartoons, and action movies, then you like a diversity of types of films. If you like nothing but kung fu films, then you don't like a diversity of films. No matter what kind of diversity you're talking about, there needs to be a real mix, kind of like a huge box of colored pencils.

 

divination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/div-ina-tion/ [d.ih2.v.ah0.n.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The practice of seeking knowledge of the future or the unknown by supernatural means.

Example sentences:

  • It was her involvement in astronomy and astrology that purportedly aligned her with black magic and divination.

dome keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dome/ [dinico..d.ih0.d.ow0.m.eh1.n.ih0.k.ow2]

Definition: A rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure, typically with a circular base

Example sentences:

  • This can be repeated to transform the octagon into a sixteen-sided figure on which the base of the dome may rest

domestication keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/do-mes-ti-ca-tion/ [d.ah0.m.eh2.s.t.ah0.k.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

To domesticate is to bring animals or plants under human control in order to provide food, power, or company. Domestication is the process of domesticating. Here are example sentences:

  • Dogs were probably the first animals to be domesticated.
  • Through the years of domestication of wheat, there have been several objectives that strive toward making it more productive. 
  • Most historians believe that animal husbandry began with the domestication of wild dogs.
dominant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dom-i-nant/ [d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.t]

The adjective "dominant" means most influential, having the greatest importance. The word “predominant” also means most influential, having the greatest importance, but native speakers wouldn’t normally write or say it like that.  Let’s look at the following sentences where the two words are used interchangeably in the same context:

  • Newspapers play a dominant role in shaping public opinion.
  • Newspapers play a predominant role in shaping public opinion.

Both sentences are correct, but the first sentence is recommended. Why? Because we want to talk about the influence newspapers have, so we should use dominant. Here the meaning of dominant is “influential”. 

 

Dominant also means most common. Like the word “dominant”, the word “predominant” also means 'most frequent' or 'most common'. Let’s look at the following sentence where the two words are used interchangeably in the same context:

  • The most predominant color in this room is beige. (However, you could also say the dominant color in this room is beige).

What we want to say is that beige is the color mostly used in the room. However, here many people use dominant as well, especially when we mean that the beige color gives the room an overall atmosphere.

So you could also say “the dominant color in this room is beige”.
 

However, in genetics, Only the adjective dominant can describe characteristics which are heritable even if only one parent carries the genes for those characteristics.  For example:

  • (Correct!) Brown hair is a dominant trait. (This means brown hair is dominant) 
  • (Incorrect!) Brown hair is a predominant trait.

Let's look at more examples using the word "dominant".

  • The university has/plays a dominant role in the local economy.
  • Money is the dominant force in consumer societies.
dominate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dom-i-nate/ [d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ey2.t]

"Dominate" and "predominate" can be used interchangeably in some sentences, normally dominate is used to mean “to have or exert power or influence over sth./sb.” "Predominate" on the other hand is mostly used as “to be the most common”. However, "dominate" can mean “to be the most common” as well and this is where it gets confusing. But more on this later. Let's talk about dominate in the sense of “to rule or control sth.” first. 

Dominate here is almost always used as with an object. We often see it used in business and sports. Let’s have a look at some examples:

  • The Chicago Bulls dominated the NBA in 1996.
  • Our company dominates the market for operating systems.
  • Google and Facebook dominate the fast-growing market for online advertising.

You may encounter the word "dominate" in your history or politics class as well. Like in the following textbook sample:

  • The Han Dynasty of China has dominated much of ancient East Asia for a long time.

As said before, dominate can mean ‘to be the most common” as well’ This usage appears quite often in TOEFL academic lectures or passages. So, let’s look at some TOEFL academic style example sentences:

  • Invertebrates dominate deep sea regions = Invertebrates are the most common species in deep sea regions. Invertebrates are animals without a backbone.

  • Mars' atmosphere is dominated by carbon dioxide. = Carbon dioxide is the most abundant gas in Mars' atmosphere.

 

Okay! Since here the meaning of dominate is “to be the most common”, we can actually use predominate to convey the same meaning. For instance, we could say “Invertebrates predominate in deep sea regions.” instead of “invertebrates dominate deep sea regions.” I will explain why we have to use "in” here in a bit.

 

Remember we cannot always replace dominate with predominate. Take this sentence here for example:

  • Our company dominates the market for operating systems.

Here dominate means have power and influence over the market.

If we use the verb predominate, the sentence becomes

  • Our company predominates in the market for operating systems. (! awkward )

That’s not completely wrong, but native speakers wouldn’t normally write or say it like that. This is because “predominate” is not often used in the sense of “control or rule sth” while dominate is.

Let me give you a better example using predominate:

  • It appears that oak trees predominate in this forest. (Here it means oak trees are the most common trees in this forest)

 

Okay! There is another difference between dominate and predominate. The verb “predominate” is an intransitive verb, meaning it doesn’t take an object, whereas dominate is a transitive verb, meaning it does take objects. This is why we used “in” with predominate before.

Let’s look at the following example sentence using “dominate”

  • Carbon dioxide dominates Mars’ atmosphere.

As you can see, the verb “dominates” takes the object, which is “Mars’ atmosphere”.

We can change this sentence using predominate because dominate here means being the most common. But we cannot simply exchange the two words. We have to write it like this:

  • Carbon dioxide predominates in Mars' atmosphere.

So we have to use the preposition “in” here, since  “predominate” doesn’t take a direct object.

Okay! Let’s look at more example sentences of the verb “predominate” where the same applies: :

  • Cottages predominate along the beach. (This means most of the buildings along the beach are cottages)
  • Rain predominates in the tropical regions.  (This means that there is a great deal of rain in the tropical regions)
  • Older people predominate in this neighborhood.

 

The word predominate is sometimes used with the preposition “over”. So when “A  predominates over B” means “A is more common than B”.  Let’s look at the following examples:

  • In the surface soil, oxygen generally predominates over carbon dioxide.
  • In this area, immigrants predominate over local people.
  • Pine trees predominate over oak trees in this park.

 

You should make sure that you understand the difference between “dominate” and "predominate" as this is crucial to understand the differences between the following words: dominance and predominance and dominant and predominant later.

To help you, we have summarized the differences for you here. As a rule of thumb, you should use dominate when you want to express the meaning of “control or power” and when you have an object. You should use predominate when you refer to something being the most common or being widespread in a certain area. Use dominate when you speak about the influence of sth. and predominate when you talk about numbers.

dopamine keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dopamine/ [d.aa1.p.ah0.m.ay2.n]

Definition: A compound present in the body as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including adrenaline

Example sentences:

  • These drugs all act in the brain to stimulate receptors that recognize the chemical messenger substance dopamine. The ability of the brain to absorb or produce chemicals such as dopamine or serotonin is what leads to the illness.

dormant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dor-mant/ [d.ao1.r.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: (Of an animal) having normal physical functions suspended or slowed down for a period of time; in or as if in a deep sleep

Example senences:

  • An animal prepares for hibernation by building up a thick layer of body fat during late summer and autumn that will provide it with energy during the dormant period. During hibernation, the animal undergoes many physiological changes, including decreased heart rate (by as much as 95%) and decreased body temperature.
  • Dormant volcanos are the volcanos that scientists consider possible to erupt again.

dramatic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dra-mat-ic/ [d.r.ah0.m.ae1.t.ih0.k]

Definition: something that captures the imagination

Example sentences:

  • The dramatic finish to the game left us speechless.
  • Half an hour of exercise a day can have a dramatic effect on your physical well being.

ductile keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/duc-tile/ [d.ah1.k.t.ah0.l]

A metal that is ductile is able to be deformed without losing toughness. An example in a sentence:

  • Unlike brittle elements such as sulfur, metal is highly ductile.

 

durable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/durable/ [d.uh1.r.ah0.b.ah0.l]

Definition: existing for a long time

Example sentences:

  • The camera is small, light, and durable, and every setting can be tweaked to fit the needs of whatever you're filming.

dweller keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/dweller/ [d.w.eh1.l.er0]

A dweller is a person or animal that lives in a particular place. Here are example sentences:

  • The fact that elk now live almost solely in the Rocky Mountains would make it seem that they are mountain dweller.
  • Many species on islands are very rare and endangered. Extinction is on the increase. As an example, 90 percent of bird species that are now extinct were island dwellers.

 

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