TOEFL® Vocabulary List

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Words that start with s
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salamander keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sala-man-der/ [s.ae2.l.ah0.m.ae1.n.d.er0]

Definition: A newt-like amphibian that typically has bright markings, once thought able to endure fire

Example sentences:

  • Viable woodlands are just as critical as clean waters for frogs, toads, turtles, salamanders, newts, and many species of reptiles.

saliva keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sali-va/ [s.ah0.l.ay1.v.ah0]

Definition: Watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion

Example sentences:

  • When the food doesn't go down, the mouth produces more saliva to try and lubricate everything into submission.

salivation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sali-va-tion/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The secretion of saliva

Example sentences:

  • Vomiting may be preceded by nausea, which is often accompanied by increased autonomic nervous system activity, involving salivation, sweating, pallor, and low blood pressure.

sarcastic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sar-cas-tic/ [s.aa0.r.k.ae1.s.t.ih0.k]

Definition: Marked by or given to using irony in order to mock or convey contempt:

Example sentences:

  • How are you supposed to follow the story when you're constantly making sarcastic comments about the hammy acting.

satisfy keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sat-is-fy/ [s.ae1.t.ah0.s.f.ay2]

To satisfy is to fulfill or meet a want, need, requirement, or expectation. If you are very hungry, a little cracker will not satisfy your appetite, but a giant steak will. 

Example sentences using the word satisfy:

  • His curiosity was satisfied by their explanation.
  • The education system must satisfy the needs of all children.
  • The owners were unable to satisfy all the demands of the workers.
  • Nothing could satisfy his desire for power.
  • The meal failed to satisfy his hunger.

Collocations

satisfy a need

  • Education must satisfy the needs of its pupils.

satisfy a demand

  • The company was unable to satisfy the demand for the product.

satisfy somebody's appetite/hunger

  • They don't get enough food to satisfy their appetite.

satisfy a desire

  • It is difficult to satisfy a desire for power.

satisfy an urge

  • Her urge to travel had never been satisfied.

satisfy somebody's curiosity ( meaning let someone know something they want to know)

  • I had to read the letter, just to satisfy my curiosity.

satisfy a requirement

  • The application must satisfy the requirements of Article 6.

satisfy a condition

  • Free treatment is available providing that two conditions are satisfied.

savanna keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sa-van-na/ [s.ah0.v.ae1.n.ah0]

A savanna is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees, which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome. Not enough rain falls on a savanna to support forests. Savannas are also known as tropical grasslands. They are found in a wide band on either side of the equator on the edges of tropical rainforests.

Savannas have warm temperature year round. There are actually two very different seasons in a savanna; a very long dry season (winter), and a very wet season (summer).

scarcely keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/scarce-ly/ [s.k.eh1.r.s.l.iy0]

Definition: almost not

Example sentences:

  • The tender young trees lining the pedestrian walkways would scarcely offer much shade for your picnic.

scattered keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/scat-tered/ [s.k.ae1.t.er0.d]

When things are scattered, they’re spread out all over the place. If the forecast calls for scattered showers, it’ll rain here and there. If the tourist sites are scattered throughout a city, you will need a car to get around.

Scattered is sometimes used with the prepositions “over”, “with” and “across”. Take a look at the examples below:

 

Be scattered over, means to spread over a wide area or over a long period of time.

Example sentences with the preposition “over”:

  • Broken glass is scattered over the floor.
  • Tribes speaking related languages are scattered over a large part of the continent
  • Villages are scattered over a very wide area.

 

If something is scattered with a lot of small things, they are spread all over it.

Example sentences with the preposition “with”:

  • The whole area was scattered with debris. = debris is scattered over the whole area.
  • The ground is scattered with pine needles and hay.

 

When things are "scattered" in several different locations, you can use the phrase "be scattered across”.

Example sentences with the preposition “across”:

  • It has 50 or more offices scattered across the country.
  • Small white pills are scattered across the pavement.
  • Piles of waste are scattered across the dusty landscape.
scenario keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sce-nario/ [s.ih0.n.eh1.r.iy0.ow0]

Definition: A postulated sequence or development of events:

Example sentences:

  • Worst case scenarios predict that hundreds of thousands of Balinese who depend on the tourism sector could lose their livelihood.

scenic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/scenic/ [s.iy1.n.ih0.k]

We use the adjective scenicto describe a natural place that is beautiful to look at. For example:

  • Niagara Falls and the Grand Canyon are two of the most scenic landmarks in the world.​
  • The ocean view here is very scenic
  • Our hotel had a scenic view of the lake.
  • I went some miles out of my way to take the scenic road into Macon.​
seasonal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sea-son-al/ [s.iy1.z.ah0.n.ah0.l]

Definition: Of, relating to, or characteristic of a particular season of the year;Fluctuating or restricted according to the season or time of year:

Example sentences:

  • The formation of low and high vessel density wood coincided with the seasonal rainfall distribution They help reduce labour costs and provide needed flexibility when there are seasonal fluctuations.

secular keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sec-u-lar/ [s.eh1.k.y.ah0.l.er0]

Used as an adjective, secular is used to describe something that is not religious, or a characteristic of the temporal world rather than the spiritual world. For example:

  • The book is based off a secular drama.

On the other hand, non-secular is something that is religious, or related to religion. For example:

  • Non-secular art was on the rise after the missionaries moved into town.

sedentary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/seden-tary/ [s.eh1.d.ah0.n.t.eh2.r.iy0]

Sedentary means staying still, or not moving. This can be used on a smaller scale, for example, the office worker had poor health because she was sedentary. It can also be used to talk about a larger group of people, for example:

  • The tribe was sedentary and remained in the northeast for their entire existence.
sedimentary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sed-i-men-ta-ry/ [s.eh2.d.ah0.m.eh1.n.t.er0.iy0]

Definition: Relating to sediment;(Of rock) that has formed from sediment deposited by water or air

Example sentences:

  • (Of rock) that has formed from sediment deposited by water or air: The present juxtaposition of the two sedimentary basins may have resulted from two separate events. Rifts typically also exhibit characteristic seismic and volcanic features, and contain thick sedimentary deposits.

seismicity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/seis-mic-i-ty/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The occurrence or frequency of earthquakes in a region:

Example sentences:

  • Although the rate of seismicity has declined since the April 6th peak, earthquakes are still occurring frequently, and steam and ash emissions and small explosions are likely to occur.

selective keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/se-lec-tive/ [s.ah0.l.eh1.k.t.ih0.v]

Selective means characterized by choice. If your mother only remembers the good things and not the bad, she has a selective memory. If a school chooses to offer only a few students spots, it is selective.

Example sentences:

  • My dad always asked me if I had selective hearing because I wouldn’t follow directions. 
  • Selective breeding may result in a greyhound running faster and seeing better than a wolf.
  • Sales still happen, but buyers are more selective.
  • We seem to have a selective memory for the best bits of the past.
self-enclosed keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/self-en-closed/ [no ipa available]

Definition: (Of a person, community, or system) not choosing to or able to communicate with others or with external systems

Example sentences:

  • The family is a self-enclosed unit.

self-pollination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/self-pol-li-na-tion/ [no ipa available]

The pollination of a flower by pollen from the same flower or from another flower on the same plant.

semiconductor keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/semi-con-duc-tor/ [s.eh2.m.iy0.k.ah0.n.d.ah1.k.t.er0]

Definition: A solid substance that has a conductivity between that of an insulator and that of most metals, either due to the addition of an impurity or because of temperature effects.

Example sentences:

  • A completely different class of materials organic semiconductors are being developed for these applications

settlement keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/set-tle-ment/ [s.eh1.t.ah0.l.m.ah0.n.t]

A settlement is a group of people choosing to live somewhere together. A settlement is smaller than a town and may be a group of families from the same country who keep ties with their homeland. 

  • The settlement in America was a home away from home for many of the Irish immigrants.
  • The nomad felt great once she was settled into her new home.
  • The tribe had wandered for years, but finally settled in what is now known as New York.
settler keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/set-tler/ [s.eh1.t.ah0.l.er0]

Settlers are people who go to live in a new country. An example in a sentence:

  • Native Americans were still nomadic when the first European settlers arrived in America.
severely keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/se-vere-ly/ [s.ah0.v.ih1.r.l.iy0]

Definition: To an undesirably great or intense degree:

Example sentences:

  • Our business has been severely affected by the slowdown.

sharply keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sharply/ [sh.aa1.r.p.l.iy0]

Definition: very suddenly and to a great degree; showing sensitivity or quick thiking

Example sentences:

  • The week got off to a rocky start on Monday, with all major indexes on Wall Street closing sharply down.
  • The ring of white calcium carbonate absorbed into the rock from the water contrasts sharply with the deep colors of the sandstone.

sheltered keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/shel-tered/ [sh.eh1.l.t.er0.d]

Definition: protected from danger; isolated from reality

Example sentences:

  • She had a depth of character, and that doesn’t usually come from living a sheltered life.
  • He had been a very sheltered person up until then, and hadn’t seen or experienced what’s behind so many closed doors in our society.

shimmer keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/shim-mer/ [sh.ih1.m.er0]

Something that is shimmering is shining with a soft, tremulous light. You can often think of the beach shimmering in during the sunrise, or a beautiful dress shimmering in the light.

  • The fresh snow looked beautiful as it was shimmering across our front lawn.

significance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sig-nif-i-cance/ [s.ah0.g.n.ih1.f.ih0.k.ah0.n.s]

Definition: The quality of being worthy of attention; importance:

Example senences:

  • Adolescent education was felt to be a social issue of some significance. The significance of the imports is that those books are priced much lower.

significant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sig-nif-i-cant/ [s.ah0.g.n.ih1.f.ih0.k.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention;

Example senences:

  • a significant increase in sales. There was a significant difference between the colour of an apple and the colour of a banana.

similarity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sim-i-lar-i-ty/ [s.ih2.m.ah0.l.eh1.r.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: The state or fact of being similar:

Example sentences:

  • The similarity of symptoms makes them hard to diagnose

situated keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sit-u-at-ed/ [s.ih1.ch.uw0.ey2.t.ih0.d]

Situated means in a particular spot or position. “The restaurant is situated between the hotel and the beach.” It is a way to describe the location of the place, or give directions.

Example sentences using situated:

  • The building is situated in the bad part of town.
  • Situated above the valley, the house offers beautiful views.

The phrase “situated for” is often used. Examples:

  • Zakro was well situated for trade with Greece. 
  • The power station was well situated for coal deliveries as it was only 200 yards from Lemington Staithes.
skew keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/skew/ [s.k.y.uw1]

Definition: Suddenly change direction or position;Make biased or distorted in a way that is regarded as inaccurate, unfair, or misleading:

Example sentences:

  • No-one is suggesting that all science funded by company money is skewed or biased or lacking independence.

slump keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/slump/ [s.l.ah1.m.p]

Definition: Undergo a sudden severe or prolonged fall in price, value, or amount;Sit, lean, or fall heavily and limply;A sudden severe or prolonged fall in the price, value, or amount of something

Example sentences:

  • She slumped against the cushions. As commodities such as coffee or soya flooded into the world market, prices slumped, causing more economic chaos. A slump in property prices could mean your retirement taking a big hit, or being forced to wait until the housing market recovers.

solid keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sol-id/ [s.aa1.l.ah0.d]

Definition: having good quality;being well made;firm

Example sentences:

  • He is a solid basketball player.
  • When heated this produces methane gas and a solid residue of sodium carbonate

soloist keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/soloist/ [s.ow1.l.ow2.ah0.s.t]

A soloist is a musician that performs solo, or on their own. Beyonce, Ed Sheeran and Jimmy Hendrix are all soloists because they perform on their own, not in a group.

solubility keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sol-u-bil-i-ty/ [no ipa available]

We can use the noun solubility to describe the character of a substance as being soluble. So in your the listening part you may hear a sentence like this:

  • One characteristic of sugar is its solubility in water.

Note:  The solubility of a substance can be high or low, or in some cases even infinite. Most substances, however, have a maximum solubility.

 

solute keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/solute/ [no ipa available]

When a substance dissolves in a liquid, we say that the substance is a solute, and the liquid is a solvent. The mixture of the solvent and the solute is called a solution.

solution keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/so-lu-tion/ [s.ah0.l.uw1.sh.ah0.n]

A solution is an answer to a problem. If you find an answer to a question, both the answer and how you got there is the solution. Teachers often ask students to find solutions to problems. The word can also mean a liquid in which something has been dissolved.

Example sentences using the word “solution”:

  • The solution is simple/obvious: you need to spend less money.
  • She made a solution of baking soda and water. (solution here means the water in which soda has been dissolved.​)
  • He rinsed the contact lens with saline solution (solution here means the water in which saline has been dissolved.​)​

The phrase “solution to a  something (problem, crisis..etc)” is often used. When the phrase "a solution to something" is used; it means finding a way to solve a problem or difficult situation so that the difficulty is removed.

Take a look at the examples below:

  • There is no simple solution to the country's drug problem.
  • She suggested a number of creative solutions to the housing crisis.
  • The police haven't yet found a solution to this crime/mystery.
  • The solutions to the math problems are in the back of the book.
  • I can't figure out the solution to this puzzle.

 

 

somber keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/somber/ [s.aa1.m.b.er0]

Definition: Dark or dull in colour or tone; Having or conveying a feeling of deep seriousness and sadness

Example sentences:

  • The paintings seem at first to be sombre in tone, coloured mostly by umbers and sepia-like hues. He wore a gray uniform with a long coat and heavy leather boots and his face wore a stern, somber expression.

sonata keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sonata/ [s.ah0.n.aa1.t.ah0]

A sonata is a musical performance that is usually broken into 3-4 parts. It can be done with any instrument, or a combination of instruments.

 

span keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/span/ [s.p.ae1.n]

Definition: (Of a bridge, arch, etc.) extend from side to side of

Example sentences:

  • The path turned to cross a small stone bridge spanning a stream.
  • Students who have worse performance in studies tend to have short attention spans and bounce rapidly among smartphones, tablets and desktop computers.

spectrum keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spec-trum/ [s.p.eh1.k.t.r.ah0.m]

Definition: The entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation

Example sentences:

  • Light, the diet of eyes, constitutes a tiny part of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation

speculative keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spec-u-la-tive/ [s.p.eh1.k.y.ah0.l.ah0.t.ih0.v]

Definition: (Of an investment) involving a high risk of loss;not based on fact or investigation

Example sentences:

  • A senior banker who did not wish to be named said there was no need to impose any additional controls on loans for speculative investments as would be needed for other kinds of investment.
  • They are entirely guesswork, speculative and based on unsound mathematics designed to promote the private healthcare system

spontaneous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spon-ta-neous/ [s.p.aa0.n.t.ey1.n.iy0.ah0.s]

Something spontaneous happens when you're least expecting it. Spontaneous things are natural or instinctive, and they happen without warning.

People who do spontaneous things all the time can be a little hard to judge. For example, she booked a spontaneous trip to France for the next day.” This means that she didn’t have any plans to go to France, but just booked it and went!

Example sentences using the word spontaneous:

  • He's a guy who's spontaneous and fun.
  • The comment was completely spontaneous.
  • He made a spontaneous offer of help.
  • I booked a spontaneous trip to France last week.

 

 


 

sporadic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spo-radic/ [s.p.er0.ae1.d.ih0.k]

Definition: Occurring at irregular intervals or only in a few places; scattered or isolated:

Example sentences:

  • The radio communications were subject to sporadic sunspot interference

sprawling keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sprawl-ing/ [s.p.r.ao1.l.ih0.ng]

The adjective sprawling is good for describing things that extend across a large area. You could describe your school as sprawling if it consists of many buildings spread over several acres. “

Example sentences using the word sprawling:

  • London is a sprawling city; it is like it never ends!
  • The sprawling city contained some 4m people.
stamina keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sta-mi-na/ [s.t.ae1.m.ah0.n.ah0]

Definition: enduring strength and energy

Example sentences:

  • One of the great battles for a young dancer is finding the stamina to survive a solo without falling to pieces by the end.
  • Is it possible for one to have the mental, emotional and even physical stamina at the same time?

staple keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sta-ple/ [s.t.ey1.p.ah0.l]

Definition:

Example sentences:

  • The main staple of Asian diets is rice.

stereotype keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stereo-type/ [s.t.eh1.r.iy0.ow0.t.ay2.p]

Definition: widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing

Example sentences:

  • A person in this stage also participates in transforming racial and cultural stereotypes, biases, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. People just do not understand the issues, or have stereotyped views of how a lesbian or gay man behaves and use it as a basis to criticise their lifestyle.

stigma keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stig-ma/ [s.t.ih1.g.m.ah0]

The stigma of a flower is the top of the centre part which takes in pollen.

stimulate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stim-u-late/ [s.t.ih1.m.y.ah0.l.ey2.t]

To stimulate something means to encourage it to begin or develop further.

The following collocations are often used

  • stimulate the economy
  • stimulate interest

Here are example sentences:

  • Supply-side economics is an economic theory that states that a reduction in taxes will stimulate the economy through increased consumer spending.
  • The new health service has stimulated public interest in home cures.
  • Raising the minimum wage will stimulate job growth.
  • I'm trying to sell my new song CD. In order to stimulate interest, I need to send out a sample song to all my friends.​

If you are stimulated by something, it makes you feel full of ideas and enthusiasm. Here are example sentences:

  • Their discussion stimulated him to research the subject more.
  • He was stimulated by their discussion.

If something stimulates a part of a person's body, it causes it to move or start working. Here are example sentences:

  • Exercise stimulates the digestive and excretory systems. 
  • The production of melanin in the skin is stimulated by exposure to the sun. 
stimulus keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stim-u-lus/ [s.t.ih1.m.y.ah0.l.ah0.s]

A stimulus causes an action or response, like the ringing of your alarm clock if you didn't sleep through it. Most times, you will use “stimulus” in the plural form- “stimuli.” For example “Light, heat and sound are common physical stimuli.

Example sentences using the word stimulus:

  • The pay raise was a stimulus for production.
  • The dog responded to the stimulus of the ringing bell.
  • Heat and light are physical stimuli.​
  • The brain was no longer responding to the stimuli of shocks, commands, smells, noises, pressures, pains.
strategic alliance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/strate-gic al-liance/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A strategic alliance is an agreement between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon objectives needed while remaining independent organizations. This form of cooperation lies between Mergers & Acquisition M&A and organic growth.

Example sentences:

  • Partners may provide the strategic alliance with resources such as products, distribution channels, manufacturing capability, project funding, capital equipment, knowledge, expertise, or intellectual property. The alliance is a cooperation or collaboration which aims for a synergy where each partner hopes that the benefits from the alliance will be greater than those from individual efforts.

stray keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stray/ [s.t.r.ey1]

Definition: Move away aimlessly from a group or from the right course or place

Example sentences:

  • Once or twice I thought I had strayed into a lecture course for undergraduates, because it feels as if the writer is repeating things he has said before.

striking keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/strik-ing/ [s.t.r.ay1.k.ih0.ng]

Definition: having a quality that thrusts itself into attention

Example sentences:

  • Since mass-market carmakers’ margins are so slim, it could have a striking effect on their profitability.
  • Large studies should give us a clearer picture, but so far they don’t show the striking lifesaving quality we’ve come to expect from cancer screening.

stunt keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stunt/ [s.t.ah1.n.t]

Definition: Prevent from growing or developing properly:

Example sentences:

  • Affected children usually have stunted physical growth, as well as irreparably retarded mental development.

sublimate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-li-mate/ [no ipa available]

To change from a solid state into a gaseous state, we can use the verb “sublimate”.  Sublimating is the process of sublimating. For example:

  • Ice can sublimate at temperatures below freezing.
  • During sublimation, solids are transformed directly to vapor without passing through a liquid stage.
subliminal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-lim-i-nal/ [s.ah0.b.l.ih1.m.ih0.n.ah0.l]

Definition: (Of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.

Example sentences:

  • An audio subliminal message could be defined as a verbal stimulus perceived below the threshold of awareness.

submerged keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-merged/ [s.ah0.b.m.er1.jh.d]

If something submerges, it goes below the surface of some water or another liquid. For example:

  • The intertidal zone in marine aquatic environments is the area of the foreshore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide.
  • A convergent plate boundary is where one of the tectonic plates submerge under the other.​
  • Hippos are unable to submerge in the few remaining water holes. 
subsist keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-sist/ [self-ence..s.eh2.l.f.s.ah0.b.s.ih1.s.t.ah0.n.s]

To subsist on something means to use (something) as a way to stay alive. Here are example sentences:

  • The villagers subsist almost entirely on rice and fish.
  • Hunters and gatherers subsisted on foraging and hunting.
subterranean keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-ter-ranean/ [s.ah0.b.t.er0.ey1.n.iy0.ah0.n]

The adjective "subterranean" describes something that is under the ground or below the surface of the earth. For example:

  • subterranean river or tunnel is under the ground.
  • The Japanese Gardens' coral reef, situated in the western tip of the Arabian Peninsula, is considered one of the most beautiful reefs on earth, contains many fish which are indigenous to it, and exhibits a unique construction of the subterranean landscape.
succession keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suc-ces-sion/ [s.ah0.k.s.eh1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: Geology A group of strata representing a single chronological sequence;The action or process of inheriting a title, office, property, etc

Example sentences:

  • Deep drilling in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea floor revealed a continental and oceanic substratum covered by upper Miocene and younger sedimentary successions. The new king was already elderly at the time of his succession.

successive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suc-ces-sive/ [s.ah0.k.s.eh1.s.ih0.v]

Successive means happening or existing one after another without a break

Example sentences:

  • Perennials have the capacity to live through many successive growing seasons.
  • Jackson was the winner for a second successive year.
succumb keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suc-cumb/ [s.ah0.k.ah1.m]

Definition: Fail to resist pressure, temptation, or some other negative force:

Example sentences:

  • Young people who feel good about themselves are less likely to succumb to negative pressure.

suitable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suit-able/ [s.uw1.t.ah0.b.ah0.l]

The phrase "be suitable for" is often used. If A is suitable for B, it means A has the qualities that are right, needed, or appropriate for B. For example:

  • Is this shirt suitable for work?
  • Her experience makes her more suitable for the job.
  • The movie is not suitable for children.
  • Employers usually decide within five minutes whether someone is suitable for the job.
  • She had no other dress suitable for the occasion.

the phrase "be cut out for" has the same meaning of "be suitable for". For example:

  • I am not cut out for this job.

 

suited keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suit-ed/ [s.uw1.t.ah0.d]

If something is well suited to a particular purpose, it is right or appropriate for that purpose. Example sentences:

  • The plant is suited to (living in) tropical climates.
  • The area is well suited to road cycling as well as off-road riding.
  • I think that this hotel may be suited to your needs because I know you like luxurious things

If someone is well suited to a particular job, they are right or appropriate for that job. For example:

  • We will hire the person who is best/most suited to the job.

If two people, especially a man and a woman, are well suited, they are likely to have a successful relationship because they have similar personalities or interests.

  • They were well suited to each other.
sulfuric keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sul-fu-ric/ [s.ah0.l.f.y.uh1.r.ih0.k]

Definition: Containing sulphur or sulphuric acid

Example sentences:

  • the sulphuric by-products of wood fires.

superficial keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/su-per-fi-cial/ [s.uw2.p.er0.f.ih1.sh.ah0.l]

Definition: concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually

Example sentences:

  • The fashion industry is often seen as superficial, or for the eyes of the rich and famous only.
  • It seems that nowadays the internet makes it almost too easy for the business to establish a superficial relationship with the customer.

supplement keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sup-ple-ment/ [s.ah1.p.l.ah0.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Add an extra element or amount to:

Example sentences:

  • But the point that many museums are devoted to or supplementing their holdings with popular arts is exciting because it opens a window on unique ideas for audiences who might not have known them before.

surge keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/surge/ [s.er1.jh]

Definition: A sudden marked increase in voltage or current in an electric circuit

Example sentences:

  • The hardware has been redesigned to prevent damage caused by short circuits or power surges.

suspect keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sus-pect/ [s.ah0.s.p.eh1.k.t]

Definition: regard as untrustworthy; regard with suspicion; have no faith or confidence in

Example sentences:

  • If you suspect a gas leak, do not strike a match or even turn on an electric light.
  • She suspected that other young researchers could use a reminder that science isn’t all about successful experiments and flashy publications.

sustainability keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sus-tain-abil-i-ty/ [s.ah0.s.t.ey2.n.ah0.b.ih1.l.ih0.t.iy0]

Sustainability is the ability of something to last. Normally you only use the word sustainability to refer to the environment or natural resources.  Here are example sentences:

  • The hunting of animals posed a threat to the sustainability of the natural species that inhabit the area.
  • Fossil fuels do not support sustainability very well because they will eventually run out.

  •  

 

 

sustained keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sus-tained/ [s.ah0.s.t.ey1.n.d]

Definition: maintained at length without interruption or weakening

Example sentences:

  • Sustained rainfall is the only hope they have for relief from the drought.
  • The Director's new thriller is an exercise in sustained creepy atmospherics that takes place in large part underground.

symbol keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sym-bol/ [s.ih1.m.b.ah0.l]

Definition: signs or objects that represent something or somebody

Example senences:

  • From spring’s delicate first buds to lush late-summer gardens, green is a symbol not just of life, but of life that is thriving.
  • The strange symbols found in Egyptian tombs have intrigued historians for centuries.

symbolize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sym-bol-ize/ [s.ih1.m.b.ah0.l.ay2.z]

Use the verb symbolize when you use an image, shape, color, or other simple visual to stand for something else, like when you wear black to symbolize that you're mourning a loss.

Example sentences:

  • The lion symbolizes (meaning represents) courage.
  • Let’s all wear white to work tomorrow to symbolize we are united as coworkers.”​
  • She came to symbolize the women's movement in America
  • The use of light and dark symbolizes good and evil.

 

synthetic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/syn-thet-ic/ [s.ih0.n.th.eh1.t.ih0.k]

Definition: (Of a substance) made by chemical synthesis, especially to imitate a natural product

Example senences:

  • Mixtures of several synthetic dyes, or mixtures of natural and synthetic dyes, could produce more subdued colors.

systematically keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sys-tem-at-i-cal-ly/ [s.ih2.s.t.ah0.m.ae1.t.ih0.k.l.iy0]

Use the adverb "systematically" when you describe something that's carried out in a deliberate way.

Example sentences:

  • We approached the problem systematically.
  • She began applying systematically to colleges.
  • I systematically memorize every word in the dictionary, starting with A and working your way through the alphabet,
salinization keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/salin-iza-tion/ [no ipa available]

Definition: the process of increasing the salt content is known as salination

Example sentences:

  • There is a widespread salinization of soils caused either by irrigation which draws salts to the surface in dry areas or else the evaporation of irrigation water that leaves salt in its stead.

salivary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sali-vary/ [no ipa available]

Definition: (ADJECTIVE) Related to saliva

Example sentences:

  • Reflex secretion of saliva from the salivary glands under the tongue and in the cheeks is stimulated by chewing, taste and smell, to varying degrees.

sapphire keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sap-phire/ [s.ae1.f.ay0.er0]

Definition: A transparent precious stone, typically blue, which is a variety of corundum (aluminium oxide)

Example sentences:

  • Most of them were common gems - rubies, diamonds, onyxes, sapphires, emeralds, topazes, and so on, and were used to supplement Elements and Talents.

satire keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/satire/ [s.ae1.t.ay2.er0]

Definition: The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people’s stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues; A play, novel, film, or other work that uses satire

Example sentences:

  • Through humour, satire, and a range of experiments with language, the collection offers an oblique commentary on Caribbean society. The film is an incisive satire on religion and British society, with the Church of England hierarchy particularly coming in for a skewering.

saturate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sat-u-rate/ [s.ae1.ch.er0.ey2.t]

Definition: Cause (something) to become thoroughly soaked with liquid so that no more can be absorbed:

Example sentences:

  • The soil is saturated

scarce keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/scarce/ [s.k.eh1.r.s]

Definition: (Especially of food, money, or some other resource) insufficient for the demand

Example sentences:

  • They saw their families and communities through difficult times, when money was scarce and the demands of rural life were very demanding.

scarcity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/scarci-ty/ [s.k.eh1.r.s.ih0.t.iy0]

Definition: The state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage

Example sentences:

  • In a market economy it is as easy to fall as to rise, but in periods of scarcity and famine, easier to survive within such a system than outside it. the growing scarcity of resources.

scavenger keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/scav-enger/ [s.k.ae1.v.ah0.n.jh.er0]

Definition: An animal that feeds on carrion, dead plant material, or refuse:

Example sentences:

  • There were the small herbivores and scavengers and hunters scuttling in the undergrowth, hiding from the larger predators who occasioned down from the heights.

scenery keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/scenery/ [s.iy1.n.er0.iy0]

Scenery means beautiful natural environment. For example, you can say natural scenery, ‘mountain scenery, ocean scenery, lakeside scenery, volcanic scenery..etc’. Here are example sentences

  • The Rocky mountains offer beautiful mountain sceneries.
  • India has some of the most beautiful natural scenery on Earth.
  • The ocean scenery in Greece is breathtaking.
scholar keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/schol-ar/ [s.k.aa1.l.er0]

A scholar is an intelligent person who has studied from a young age to gain mastery in a certain discipline. You can think of historians as scholars, as professors.

secrete keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/se-crete/ [s.ih0.k.r.iy1.t]

Definition: (Of a cell, gland, or organ) produce and discharge (a substance):

Example senences:

  • Sweat is secreted by glands in the skin when it is necessary to lose excess heat from the body.

 

sedentary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/seden-tary/ [s.eh1.d.ah0.n.t.eh2.r.iy0]

Sedentary means staying still, or not moving. This can be used on a smaller scale, for example, the office worker had poor health because she was sedentary. It can also be used to talk about a larger group of people, for example:

  • The tribe was sedentary and remained in the northeast for their entire existence.
sediment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sed-i-ment/ [s.eh1.d.ah0.m.ah0.n.t]

Sediment is solid material that settles at the bottom of a liquid, especially earth and pieces of rock that have been carried along and then left somewhere by water, ice, or wind.

seismic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/seis-mic/ [s.ay1.z.m.ih0.k]

Definition: Of or relating to earthquakes or other vibrations of the earth and its crust

Example sentences:

  • The Government has already identified areas that are vulnerable to earthquake based on seismic activity.

seizure keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/seizure/ [s.iy1.zh.er0]

Definition: A sudden attack of illness, especially a stroke or an epileptic fit:

Example sentences:

  • A Canadian court heard how an epileptic driver had a seizure while driving and killed a cyclist.

self-contradictory keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/self-con-tra-dic-to-ry/ [no ipa available]

A synonym of self-contradictory is paradoxical. It is when something may seem contradictory but is actually true. An example of self-contradiction would be “Change is the only constant.” While it seems like change and constant are antonyms, and that if things are always changing they couldn’t remain constant. However, the only thing that remains the same in life is that there will always be things changing, so it is true.

self-inflicted keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/self-in-flict-ed/ [no ipa available]

Definition: (Of a wound or other harm) inflicted on oneself

Example sentences:

  • If the benefit to be gained by self-inflicted injury outweighs the harm done, then it is permitted.

semi-arid keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/se-mi-arid/ [no ipa available]

Definition: a climate or place that is partially arid, or semi-dry and has less than 20 inches of rain each year

Example sentences:

  • Semiarid climate virtually eliminates all major apple pests.

sequestration keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/se-ques-tra-tion/ [s.eh2.k.w.ah0.s.t.r.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The process of removing a chemical from the environment and sequestering it in an organic or physical structure

Example sentences:

  • A potentially beneficial effect of HO-1 activity against oxidant injury is related to its role in iron sequestration.

settlement keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/set-tle-ment/ [s.eh1.t.ah0.l.m.ah0.n.t]

A settlement is a group of people choosing to live somewhere together. A settlement is smaller than a town and may be a group of families from the same country who keep ties with their homeland. 

  • The settlement in America was a home away from home for many of the Irish immigrants.
  • The nomad felt great once she was settled into her new home.
  • The tribe had wandered for years, but finally settled in what is now known as New York.
severe keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/se-vere/ [s.ah0.v.ih1.r]

Definition: extreme;harmful

Example sentences:

  • Henry Bartlam was only six weeks old when he suffered a severe asthma attack which nearly killed him

shallow keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/shal-low/ [sh.ae1.l.ow0]

Definition: not far form top to bottom; lacking depth of intellect or knowledge; concerned only with what is obvious

Example sentences:

  • Shallower earthquakes tend to cause more damage at the surface.
  • They argues that Facebook is a lot like most reality shows: shallow, narcissistic, digitally or surgically enhanced, but mostly harmless.

shed keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/shed/ [semifini..s.eh2.m.iy0.f.ih1.n.ih0.sh.t]

Definition: to throw off naturally; to give out

Example sentences:

  • The experiments shed no new information on the cause of the disease.
  • In order to grow, crabs must shed their shells.

shift keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/shift/ [sh.ih1.f.t]

Definition: a change in position or direction

Example sentences:

  • Earthquakes are caused by shifting layers of earth along faults.
  • A shift to a less processed diet, and a greater reliance on foods direct from nature and home-cooked meals, will benefit health.

sign up for keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sign up for/ [no ipa available]

The phrase ‘sign up for sth.’ means to commit oneself to join something - like a course or organization. For example,

  • I have decided to sign up for evening classes at the community college.

 

Or we use the pattern ‘sign someone up to do something’. Here are example sentences:

  • My teacher signed me up to do voluntary work next month.

significant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sig-nif-i-cant/ [s.ah0.g.n.ih1.f.ih0.k.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention;

Example senences:

  • a significant increase in sales. There was a significant difference between the colour of an apple and the colour of a banana.

silkworm keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/silk-worm/ [s.ih1.l.k.w.er0.m]

Definition: The commercially bred caterpillar of the domesticated silk moth (Bombyx mori), which spins a silk cocoon that is processed to yield silk fibre

Example sentences:

  • The domesticated silkworm is one of a few species that have been used for genetic analysis.

siphon keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/siphon/ [s.ay1.f.ah0.n]

Definition: A tubular organ in an aquatic animal, especially a mollusc, through which water is drawn in or expelled.

Example sentences:

  • The way the siphon directs the water stream controls the animal's forward, backward, and sideways movements.

skeptical keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/skep-ti-cal/ [s.k.eh1.p.t.ah0.k.ah0.l]

Definition: to question the truthfulness of information presented as facts; to not trust

Example sentences:

  • I have always been deeply ambivalent — if not outright skeptical — about this hardware feature on an cell phone.
  • Some studies suggest that a skeptical brain works differently than a believing brain.

sloping keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/slop-ing/ [s.l.ow1.p.ih0.ng]

Definition: Inclined from a horizontal or vertical line

Example sentences:

  • The new terminal has been designed on three levels, taking advantage of the sloping terrain.

solar panel keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/so-lar pan-el/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A panel designed to absorb the sun’s rays as a source of energy for generating electricity or heating.

Example sentences:

  • Most robots today draw that energy from electrical cords, solar panels, or batteries.

solifluction keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/so-lifluc-tion/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The gradual movement of wet soil or other material down a slope, especially where frozen subsoil acts as a barrier to the percolation of water.

Example sentences:

  • In contrast to the soil creep of temperate regions, solifluction and gelifiuction are relatively rapid processes in periglacial regions and can result in the active development of slopes.

solstice keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sol-stice/ [s.ao1.l.s.t.ih0.s]

Definition: Either of the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.

Example sentences:

  • The minimum length of shadow during a day is less in summer than in winter and at the solstices it changes from lengthening to shortening or visa versa. Now that the solstice has passed, winter is officially upon us.

soluble keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sol-u-ble/ [s.aa1.l.y.ah0.b.ah0.l]

If we want to use an adjective to describe a substance that can dissolve, we use the adjective soluble. Likewise, to describe a substance that cannot dissolve, we use the adjective insoluble. Here are example sentences:

  • Salt is soluble in water = Salt can dissolve in water.
  • Sand is insoluble in water = Sand cannot dissolve in water
solution keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/so-lu-tion/ [s.ah0.l.uw1.sh.ah0.n]

A solution is an answer to a problem. If you find an answer to a question, both the answer and how you got there is the solution. Teachers often ask students to find solutions to problems. The word can also mean a liquid in which something has been dissolved.

Example sentences using the word “solution”:

  • The solution is simple/obvious: you need to spend less money.
  • She made a solution of baking soda and water. (solution here means the water in which soda has been dissolved.​)
  • He rinsed the contact lens with saline solution (solution here means the water in which saline has been dissolved.​)​

The phrase “solution to a  something (problem, crisis..etc)” is often used. When the phrase "a solution to something" is used; it means finding a way to solve a problem or difficult situation so that the difficulty is removed.

Take a look at the examples below:

  • There is no simple solution to the country's drug problem.
  • She suggested a number of creative solutions to the housing crisis.
  • The police haven't yet found a solution to this crime/mystery.
  • The solutions to the math problems are in the back of the book.
  • I can't figure out the solution to this puzzle.

 

 

solvent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sol-vent/ [s.aa1.l.v.ah0.n.t]

When a substance dissolves in a liquid, we say that the substance is a solute, and the liquid is a solvent. The mixture of the solvent and the solute is called a solution

sonar keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sonar/ [s.ow1.n.aa0.r]

Definition: A system for the detection of objects under water by emitting sound pulses and detecting or measuring their return after being reflected

Example sentences:

  • Out in the Atlantic, vast Japanese factory ships work nonstop, using modern sonar detection to spot the tuna shoals they sweep the ocean clean of fish.

spacious keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spa-cious/ [s.p.ey1.sh.ah0.s]

Definition: very large in expanse or scope

Example sentences:

  • The new version of the vehicle will have better fuel-economy than previous versions, be lighter, more spacious, and more aerodynamic.
  • The spacious plains of the Midwest make up the nation's breadbasket.

species keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/species/ [s.p.iy1.sh.iy0.z]

A species is a distinct group of animals or plants that have common characteristics and can breed with each other.

Note: The word species can be singular and plural. Therefore, you can say that species is red or these species are yellow.

speculation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spec-u-la-tion/ [s.p.eh2.k.y.ah0.l.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: The forming of a theory or conjecture without firm evidence

Example sentences:

  • The profitability of the trade has given rise to speculation that money from wildlife is financing terrorist activities. there has been widespread speculation that he plans to quit

spike keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spike/ [s.p.ay1.k]

Definition: A sharp increase in the magnitude or concentration of something:

Example senences:

  • The recent spike in oil prices seems to have ended as increased production has boosted supplies.

spontaneously keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spon-ta-neous-ly/ [s.p.aa0.n.t.ey1.n.iy0.ah0.s.l.iy0]

When you do something spontaneously, you do it on a whim, without preparing for it or giving it much thought.

Example sentences using the word spontaneously:

  • He laughed spontaneously.
  • She acted spontaneously.
  • They spontaneously decided to go to the beach.
  • spontaneously took a trip to Paris last week.
sprawl keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sprawl/ [s.p.r.ao1.l]

Definition: Spread out over a large area in an untidy or irregular way

Example sentences:

  • Despite its imposing skyline, Frankfurt itself has not suffered from vast urban sprawl like other European cities.

spur keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/spur/ [s.p.er1]

The word "spur" can be used as a verb. To spur something on is to get it going or to encourage it. You will see the usage "spur economic growth" a lot. For example:

  • Lower interest rates should spur economic growth.
  • Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit all spurred the shift to factory production. 
  • The fundamental concept in supply-side economics is that tax cuts will spur economic growth because these tax cuts will allow entrepreneurs to invest their tax savings, thereby creating more jobs and profits

The word "spur" is a noun. Spurs are small metal wheels with sharp points that are attached to the heels of a rider's boots. The rider uses them to make their horse go faster. We can say something that encourages a person or organization to do that thing is a "spur". For example:

  • The reward was offered as a spur to greater work/achievement.

 

 

stand out keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stand out/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Be easily noticeable:

Example sentences:

  • Certain landmarks and locations in London stand out and are very noticeable.
  • It is important to make your resume stand out from other applicants

steady keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/steady/ [s.t.eh1.d.iy0]

Definition: firm; in a fixed position; without change

Example sentences:

  • Steady growth is projected for companies involved in genetic engineering.
  • A steady diet of lecture-based learning was designed to fill students up with facts and test their ability to memorize them.

sterilize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ster-il-ize/ [s.t.eh1.r.ah0.l.ay2.z]

Definition: Make (something) free from bacteria or other living microorganisms

Example sentences:

  • This chemical is used to make other chemicals and is also widely used in the health care industry to sterilize medical devices.

stimulant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stim-u-lant/ [s.t.ih1.m.y.ah0.l.ah0.n.t]

A stimulant is a drug that increases bodily activity, often increasing the heart rate.​

Example sentences using the word stimulant:

  • Caffeine is a stimulant.
  • The football player used the stimulant to increase his energy level.
  • Athletes use stimulants to enhance their performance.
  • Chicken is raised without the use of antibiotics, animal by-products, or growth stimulants.
  • Stimulants can increase your heart rate and make you feel more energetic.
  • Stimulants increase dopamine in the brain, which increases heart rate and feelings of alertness and energy.​
stimuli keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stim-uli/ [s.t.ih1.m.y.ah0.l.ay2]

Definition: A thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue

Example sentences:

  • They are conditioned to respond to an auditory stimulus by, for example, dropping a block when a sound is heard through earphones. They had slower reaction times for visual and auditory stimuli, as well as subtle chorea, dystonia, and nystagmus

straightforward keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/straight-for-ward/ [s.t.r.ey1.t.f.ao1.r.w.er0.d]

Definition: without concealment or deception; honest

Example sentences:

  • His straightforward approach to his business dealings earned him success and respect.
  • So far, the material in the first few lectures is relatively straightforward and students could plow through it with ease.

stratosphere keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stratos-phere/ [s.t.r.ae1.t.ah0.s.f.ih2.r]

The stratosphere is the layer of the earth's atmosphere which lies between 10 and 50 kilometers above the earth.

streamline keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stream-line/ [s.t.r.iy1.m.l.ay2.n]

Definition: Make (an organization or system) more efficient and effective by employing faster or simpler working methods:

Example sentences:

  • We want to introduce new efficiencies and streamline the service as much as possible,’ Mr McCarthy said.
  • Internet stores have streamlined the process of finding, buying, and selling merchandise.

stringent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/strin-gent/ [s.t.r.ih1.n.jh.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Of regulations, requirements, or conditions) strict, precise, and exacting

Example sentences:

  • Their produce must be processed under the most stringent conditions by well-trained staff.

stymie keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/stymie/ [s.t.ay1.m.iy0]

Definition: Prevent or hinder the progress of

Example sentences:

  • The changes must not be allowed to stymie new medical treatments. He is confident the job will be completed by the end of the year, and even sooner had not the horrendous weather of recent months stymied their progress.

sublimation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-li-ma-tion/ [no ipa available]

To change from a solid state into a gaseous state, we can use the verb “sublimate”.  Sublimating is the process of sublimating. For example:

  • Ice can sublimate at temperatures below freezing.
  • During sublimation, solids are transformed directly to vapor without passing through a liquid stage.
submerge keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-merge/ [s.ah0.b.m.er1.jh]

If something submerges, it goes below the surface of some water or another liquid. For example:

  • The intertidal zone in marine aquatic environments is the area of the foreshore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide.
  • A convergent plate boundary is where one of the tectonic plates submerge under the other.​
  • Hippos are unable to submerge in the few remaining water holes. 
subsequently keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-se-quent-ly/ [s.ah1.b.s.ah0.k.w.ah0.n.t.l.iy0]

Definition: following; coming after something

Example sentences:

  • The sculpture is a high-tech copy produced not by compression but by machine-carving steel blocks that were subsequently assembled into the final product.
  • The public applauded the president's actions and subsequently his ratings in the polls improved.

substantial keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-stan-tial/ [s.ah0.b.s.t.ae1.n.sh.ah0.l]

Something substantial is large in size, number, or amount: If you want to say someone spent a lot of money without being too specific, you could say they spent a substantial amount of money. It is used as a way to be vague about just how large something is.

Example sentences:

  • A substantial number of people commute to work each day.
  • This will save us a substantial (meaning considerable) amount of money/time.
  • Activities like that pose a substantial risk of injury.
  • She purchased her tickets at a substantial discount.
  • Radio astronomy has led to substantial increases in astronomical knowledge.
  • There is substantial evidence that certain forms of solar energy either now or within a few years will be economically competitive with conventional sources of heat and power.
subvert keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sub-vert/ [s.ah0.b.v.er1.t]

Subvert is a verb that has several meanings, but the biggest one to take away is to destroy completely. It can destroy property or hinder operations, corrupt, or cause the downfall of something.

  • We must not let the crisis subvert our ethics and good nature.
  • We must subvert the middle class if we want a successful utopia.
successive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suc-ces-sive/ [s.ah0.k.s.eh1.s.ih0.v]

Successive means happening or existing one after another without a break

Example sentences:

  • Perennials have the capacity to live through many successive growing seasons.
  • Jackson was the winner for a second successive year.
succulent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suc-cu-lent/ [s.ah1.k.y.ah0.l.ih0.n.t]

Definition: ADJECTIVE:(Of food) tender, juicy, and tasty / NOUN: a succulent plant

Example sentences:

  • If you don't live where ferns thrive, you can adapt the idea, using other low growers such as sedums, succulents, rockery plants, or well-mannered ground covers.

sufficiently keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suf-fi-cient-ly/ [s.ah0.f.ih1.sh.ah0.n.t.l.iy0]

Definition: enough; in a satisfying manner

Example sentences:

  • Jessica is sufficiently mature to make her own decisions.
  • The city has a big earthquake problem: People aren’t sufficiently scared of them.
  • Jenny admits that her greatest challenge has been sufficiently overcoming shyness so she can make presentations to her peers.

suite keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/suite/ [s.w.iy1.t]

A suite is similar to a sonata in the sense that it is a musical performance with several parts, however in a sonata the parts are typically connected whereas in a suite, they are only loosely connected.

sulfur dioxide keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sul-fur diox-ide/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A colourless pungent toxic gas formed by burning sulphur in air.

Example sentences:

  • When fossil fuels burn, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sooty particles, dioxins, and other pollutants are released into the air and water.

summer solstice keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sum-mer sol-stice/ [no ipa available]

The summer solstice is the longest day of the year. Solstices are opposite on either side of the equator, so the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere is the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.

superior keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/su-pe-ri-or/ [s.uw0.p.ih1.r.iy0.er0]

Definition: Higher in rank, status, or quality;Of high standard or quality

Example sentences:

  • A lot of companies are interested in investing in Ireland - they have superior building systems and can provide a superior standard of service
  • It is superior to every other car on the road

supposedly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sup-pos-ed-ly/ [s.ah0.p.ow1.z.ah0.d.l.iy0]

Definition: believed or reputed to be the case

Example sentences:

  • Streaming services have recently been reviving supposedly dead series frequently enough to be a legitimate trend, but not just any show can get resuscitated.

susceptible keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sus-cep-ti-ble/ [s.ah0.s.eh1.p.t.ah0.b.ah0.l]

Definition: Likely or liable to be influenced or harmed by a particular thing

Example senences:

  • Adult birds are susceptible to lead poisoning when their food source is contaminated.
  • When traveling in tropical climates, travelers are susceptible to malaria.

 

sustain keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sus-tain/ [s.ah0.s.t.ey1.n]

A sustains B means A provides what is needed for B to exist, continue. Here are example sentences:

  • There is not enough oxygen to sustain life at very high altitudes.
  • All life on earth is sustained by energy from the sun.
  • In preparing for hibernation, ground squirrels eat constantly to grow up fat reserves that will sustain them for their long dormant period.
  • The movie sustained our interest [=kept us interested] from beginning to end.
  • If you get hungry in the mid-afternoon, you might try snacking to sustain your energy through dinner.

 

 To sustain also means to hold up the weight of (something). For example

  • The roof is unable to sustain the weight of all the snow.

sustainable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sus-tain-able/ [s.ah0.s.t.ey1.n.ah0.b.ah0.l]

If something is sustainable, it means it is able to last or continue for a long time

Example sentences:

  • The creation of an efficient and sustainable transport system is critical to the long-term future of London.
  • As technological development continues to intensify business competition, the quality of customer service is likely to become the only sustainable source of competitive advantage.

We also use sustainable to describe a natural resource that is able to be consumed without being completely used up. For example:

  • Solar energy is a sustainable form of energy.
  • Wind energy is sustainable, but manufacture and implementation of wind farms can be costly.
  • Geothermal energy is a sustainable energy source and it is nearly emission-free.

We also use sustainable to describe a system or a method that does not completely use up or destroy natural resources and is beneficial to the environment. For example:

  • Sustainable agriculture benefits the environment by maintaining soil quality, reducing soil degradation and erosion, and saving water. In addition to these benefitssustainable agriculture also increases the biodiversity of the area by providing a variety of organisms with healthy and natural environments to live in.
symbiosis keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sym-bio-sis/ [s.ih2.m.b.ay0.ow1.s.ah0.s]

Definition: Interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both

Example senences:

  • We have a symbiotic relationship, he does all my DIY and drives me to the shops, I deal with his paperwork and make his appointments.

symbolic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sym-bol-ic/ [s.ih0.m.b.aa1.l.ih0.k]

When one thing represents something else that's more abstract, it is symbolic 

The phrase "be symbolic of" is often used. For example:

  • The hockey team’s mascot was very symbolic of the team
  • Wedding rings are symbolic of eternal love.
  • The dove is symbolic of peace.
  • Yellow clothes are worn as symbolic of spring.
  • The change from long to short hair is symbolic of the woman's need for change in her whole life.

 

COLLOCATIONS

a symbolic gesture

  • They fired arrows out to sea in a symbolic gesture of defiance.

 

a symbolic act

  • Lighting the Olympic flame is a symbolic act.

 

symbolic importance/significance

  • The capture of the city was of great symbolic importance.

 

largely symbolic

  • The vote was largely symbolic.

 

purely symbolic

  • Our protest was meant to be purely symbolic.

synthesis keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/syn-the-sis/ [s.ih1.n.th.ah0.s.ah0.s]

Definition: the combination of ideas into a complex whole

Example sentences:

  • Blacks and other minorities have higher concentrations of melanin, which makes their skin darker, but this inhibits synthesis of vitamin D, the researchers explained.
  • Now, biologists know that RNAs serve many other essential functions: they help with protein synthesis, control gene activity and modify other RNAs.

systematic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/sys-tem-at-ic/ [s.ih2.s.t.ah0.m.ae1.t.ih0.k]

Use the adjective "systematic" to describe things that are orderly and efficient. Think about a multi-step process that you have found the fastest and best way to complete — you do it over and over. You might be systematic about packing for a long trip or the way you travel up and down the aisles at a grocery store, probably with a list in your hand. If your mother has several children, she is has probably learned to be very systematic with her planning.

Example sentences:

  • We used a systematic approach to solve the problem.
  • She made a systematic study of the evidence.
  • He is very systematic (meaning methodical) in his work.
  • They went about their business in a systematic way.

The prepositions “in”, “about” and “with” are often used.

Example sentences with the preposition “in”:

  • Be regular and systematic in your practice.
  • They are not systematic in their approach because they are so influenced by the mood of the moment.

Example sentences with the preposition “about”:

  • To a large extent, I am systematic about making sure the reader immediately knows that these are not mine.
  • Our nationwide health-care system makes it easier to be systematic about finding people with early symptoms of an autoimmune disease who might take part.

Example sentences with the preposition “with”:

  • Success is a science and can be predictable, accelerated and systematic with this proven approach.
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