keyboard_return Exit

TOEFL® Word List

settings  Settings
Hi, there!

Get 5 Ask Instructor questions as a reward
for singing up free today.

close Filter
1 paradox keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/para-dox/ [p.eh1.r.ah0.d.aa2.k.s]

Paradox is a tricky word to learn and use correctly. By definition, paradox is a statement that contradicts itself. For example, the statement “I always lie” is a paradox because if the statement is true, it must be false. 

Example sentences using the word paradox:

  • It is a paradox that computers need maintenance so often since they are meant to save people time.
  • As an actor, he's a paradox. he loves being in the public eye but also deeply values and protects his privacy.
  • The facts pose something of a paradox.
  • The paradox about time is that it seems to go faster as we become older and less active.


2 parallel keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-al-lel/ [p.eh1.r.ah0.l.eh2.l]

Definition: being almost of the same type or time;comparable

Example sentences:

  • The road runs parallel to the Ottawa River

3 paramount keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/para-mount/ [p.eh1.r.ah0.m.aw2.n.t]

The adjective "paramount" means more important than anything else.  Something that is of paramount importance has a great urgency to it - it's at the very top of his to-do list. Let's look at example sentences:

  • Safety is of paramount importance. This means safety is paramount.
  • Unemployment was the paramount (meaning chief, main) issue in the election.
  • The child's welfare must be seen as paramount.
  • Nitrogen is of paramount importance to life on earth.
  • The ability to teach students to think is paramount to a teacher’s success.
4 parasite keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-a-site/ [p.eh1.r.ah0.s.ay2.t]

Definition: An organism which lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other’s expense

Example senences:

  • If a species of parasite is to survive, the host organism must live long enough for the parasite to reproduce; if the host species becomes extinct, so do its parasites.
  • Parasitism is a relationship where one organism, known as a parasite lives in or on another organism as a host.


5 parasitism keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-a-sitism/ [no ipa available]

Definition: the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)

Example senences:

  • Parasitism is a relationship where one organism, known as a parasite lives in or on another organism as a host. Despite the parasite doing harm, it does not want to kill the host because the host provides nourishment but only if it is alive.


6 participative keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-tic-i-pa-tive/ [p.aa2.r.t.ih1.s.ah0.p.ah0.t.ih0.v]

Definition: That participates, or is capable of participating

Example sentences:

  • Compared with our existing lunchtime lectures and conversations with artists, this programme will be more participative, more in depth and dealing with more general themes.

7 particular keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-tic-u-lar/ [p.er0.t.ih1.k.y.ah0.l.er0]

Definition: unique or specific to a person or thing or category

Example sentences:

  • The findings suggest that media coverage can help improve the public's knowledge about a particular health topic.
  • China is the fastest-growing national investor in America, targeting real estate, hospitality and technology services in particular.

8 pasture keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pas-ture/ []

Definition: Land covered with grass and other low plants suitable for grazing animals, especially cattle or sheep

Example sentences:

  • The woodland and waste that lay beyond the cultivated land was common land, which provided timber for fuel and building, and rough pasture for cattle, sheep, and goats.

9 peasant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/peas-ant/ [p.eh1.z.ah0.n.t]

The word peasant can mean several things, but in general, it is an agricultural labourer, or a country person. In olden times, it means someone who is at the bottom of the classes, who lacks culture or education. Used in a sentence:

  • The prince had several peasants who worked in his fields.
  • The peasant complained about the poor working conditions.
10 pediment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ped-i-ment/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A triangular feature surmounting a door, window, or other part of a non-classical building.

Example sentences:

  • Use of pediments has been freely adapted in many styles of architecture, yet remains most closely associated with Greek and Roman (Classical) derivatives.

11 perceptible keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-cep-ti-ble/ [p.er0.s.eh1.p.t.ah0.b.ah0.l]

Something perceptible is noticeable, even if just slightly. For example:

  • A perceptible noise can be heard.
  • There was a perceptible change in the audience's mood.​

You perceive through your senses, and things that are perceptible can be perceived; you can sense them. For example:

  • A flavor is perceptible if you can taste it.
  • A sound is perceptible if you can hear it.

The opposite of perceptible is imperceptible, for things that can't be noticed or detected. If you notice a sound, sight, or change, then it must be perceptible. For example:

  • The sour taste in the milk was barely perceptible.
12 perceptive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-cep-tive/ [p.er0.s.eh1.p.t.ih0.v]

Perceptive is a word to describe someone who is good at seeing. A perceptive person is good at gathering information and using her senses to take in the world. If you are upset but trying to hide it, a perceptive person is the one who will notice. If someone calls you perceptive, they mean you are good at understanding things or figuring things out.

Perceptive people are insightful, intelligent, and able to see what others cannot. Used in a sentence, “My student was very perceptive for only being six years old.”


Example sentences:

  • In the past decade, developmental psychologists have shown that babies are remarkably perceptive about the social world around them.
  • He is a very perceptive young man.
  • He was a perceptive and sophisticated man who was sensitive to other people's weaknesses.



13 perilous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-ilous/ [p.eh1.r.ah0.l.ah0.s]

Definition: Full of danger or risk:

Example sentences:

  • When the distances are longer and the borders tougher, the journeys become much more perilous.

14 periodic table keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pe-ri-od-ic ta-ble/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns.

Example sentences:

  • When you move down the periodic table, as the atomic numbers increase, the elements become rarer

15 permafrost keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-mafrost/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions.

Example sentences:

  • The permafrost below the topsoil is frozen all year around, and this prevents roots from penetrating deeply into the ground.

16 perpendicular keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-pen-dic-u-lar/ [p.er2.p.ah0.n.d.ih1.k.y.ah0.l.er0]

Definition: At an angle of 90° to a given line, plane, or surface

Example sentences:

  • The minor axis is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the galaxy.

17 perspective keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-spec-tive/ [p.er0.s.p.eh1.k.t.ih0.v]

Your perspective is the way you see something. Perspective can be used from a positive or negative standpoint. The preposition "on" is often used after it.

Example sentences:

  • My grandmother has a surprisingly modern perspective on life.
  • They had totally different perspectives on the war.
  • It's easy to lose perspective on things when you are under stress.
  • He says the death of his father 18 months ago has given him a new perspective on life.


  • from one's perspective = from the perspective of someone
  • Put something in/into perspective

from one's perspective

From one's perspective = from the perspective of someone = from one's point of view

Example sentences:

  • He helped us see the problem from a new perspective. (meaning angle, point of view).
  • The story is told from the perspective of a teenage boy in the 1940s.
  • From my perspective, I think the employee should be punished.

Put something in perspective

If you put something in perspective, it means you correctly regard something in relation to something else. 

Example sentences:

  • You need to put things in perspective: even though you have not attained your career goals yet, you still have many years to do so.
  • Let's put the cost of living into perspective; it costs more to live now than in the past, but now we have a better life than before.
  • John put things in perspective: even though his English was not as good as Mary's English, he realized that he had been studying it for less time than Mary.
  • Life can sometimes seem very overwhelming. This feeling can be normal, although it may be debilitating to routines and lifestyles. You should try and develop your own methods of putting your problems into perspective, no matter what it is.



a fresh perspective (=new and interesting or useful)

  • The venture will benefit from their fresh perspective.

a historical perspective

  • It is important to have a historical perspective when considering these changes.

a global/international perspective

  • A global perspective allows firms to spot opportunities and reduce supply costs.​a female perspective​

a business perspective

  • I think it was a good thing to do, from a business perspective.


18 pesticide keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pes-ti-cide/ [p.eh1.s.t.ah0.s.ay2.d]

Definition: A substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals

Example sentences:

  • Do not pour pesticides or herbicides down sinks, drains or toilets.

19 phenomena keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/phe-nom-e-na/ [f.ah0.n.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0]

A phenomenon is an extraordinary occurrence or circumstance. In the 1950s, rock-n-roll was considered a new cultural phenomenon, while today we think of crop circles as a mysterious phenomenon. An earthquake, for example, was a phenomenon, because you could see it (and hear it and feel it).  Used in a sentence, “The class was excited to see the eclipse, as it was a natural phenomenon.”

"Phenomena" is simply the plural word for "phenomenon", or it is one or more extraordinary occurrences or circumstances.  Example sentences:

  • May was a great month for astronomists because of the high amount of phenomena in the sky.






20 philanthropic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/phil-an-thropic/ []

Definition: a feeling of love for people; generous in assistance to the poor

Example sentences:

  • We need entrepreneurs, politicians, philanthropic foundations, and development organizations working together to solve the unemployment crisis and make the city an engine of growth.
  • The philanthropic work of the foundation benefits all sectors of society.

21 photosynthesis keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pho-to-syn-the-sis/ []

Definition: The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.

Example sentences:

  • To avoid the production of oxygen via photosynthesis, plants were kept in the dark

22 physiological keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/phys-i-o-log-i-cal/ [f.ih2.z.iy0.ah0.l.aa1.jh.ih0.k.ah0.l]


Example sentences:

  • I'm thinking maybe my problems are physiological rather than psychological.

23 pigment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pig-ment/ [p.ih1.g.m.eh0.n.t]

Definition: The natural colouring matter of animal or plant tissue:

Example sentences:

  • Lycopene is a red pigment that occurs naturally in certain plant and algal tissues.

24 pigmented keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pig-ment-ed/ [p.ih2.g.m.eh1.t.ih0.d]

Definition: Color (something) with or as if with pigment

Example sentences:

  • According to my reference sources, albino birds are extremely rare in the wild, and they also tend to be attacked by the normally pigmented members of their flock.

25 placid keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/placid/ [p.l.ae1.s.ah0.d]

Definition: (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves; not easily irritated

Example sentences:

  • In such a large field, his placid demeanor also made it difficult for him to stand out among all the competitors.
  • The flat, glistening, white expanse of the Greenland Ice Sheet, stretching out across hundreds of thousands of square miles, appears placid, unchanging and boring even.

26 planet keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plan-et/ [p.l.ae1.n.ah0.t]

A planet is an object that revolves around the star. Our earth is a planet. In our solar system, there are 8 planets:

  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune


The adjective of the word “planet” is “planetary”. “Planetary” describes anything related to the planet. For example:

  • A Planetary system
  • Planetary scientists

An example sentence would be :

  • Within our own galaxy, there are probably tens of thousands of planetary systems.

27 plasma keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plas-ma/ [p.l.ae1.z.m.ah0]

Definition: An ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric charge, typically at low pressures

Example sentences:

  • This expansion of the atmosphere significantly increases the number of microscopic collisions between the satellite and the gases and plasma of the upper atmosphere.
  • The photons can break apart, or ionize, molecules and atoms of the atmosphere into protons and electrons, producing plasma.

28 plentiful keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plen-ti-ful/ [p.l.eh1.n.t.ah0.f.ah0.l]

Definition: Existing in or yielding great quantities; abundant:

Example sentences:

  • Animals were plentiful for hunting, and there was an abundance of wild cereals on the mountain ridges

29 plunge keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plunge/ [p.l.ah1.n.jh]

Definition: Jump or dive quickly and energetically:

Example sentences:

  • I watched as two police divers plunged into the frigid East River and quickly collected the corpse.

30 polio keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/po-lio/ [p.ow1.l.iy0.ow2]

Definition: An infectious viral disease that affects the central nervous system and can cause temporary or permanent paralysis.

Example sentences:

  • Unless polio is eliminated in India and Nigeria, global eradication cannot be achieved

31 pollen keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pollen/ [p.aa1.l.ah0.n]

Pollen is a substance inside a flowering plant that makes it possible for the plant to reproduce.

Example sentences:

  • Insects that visit flowers are in search of pollen and nectar. Most flowers produce nectar just to attract pollinators. The higher the concentration of sugar in the nectar, the more attractive it is to pollinators.

32 pollination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pol-li-na-tion/ []

Pollination is a process of transferring pollen from one plant to another plant.

Note: There are two types of pollination. One is cross-pollination. Another is self-pollination.

Example sentences:

  • Self-pollination is a type of pollination that involves only one flower.

  • The disadvantage of self-pollination is a reduction in genetic diversity because the sperm and egg cells of the same flower share genetic information.

33 pollutant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pol-lu-tant/ [p.ah0.l.uw1.t.ah0.n.t]

Definition: A substance that pollutes something, especially water or the atmosphere

Example senences:

  • The finding could help determine the background levels of various water pollutants


34 pollution keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pol-lu-tion/ []

To pollute is to make (land, water, air, etc.) dirty and not safe or suitable to use.  Pollution is the process of polluting water, air, or land, especially with poisonous chemicals.

The following sentences contain the verb pollute.

  • Car emissions pollute the air.
  • Hazardous waste from landfills polluted the soils in this forest.
  • Our beach was polluted by an oil spill.

As you can see the verb pollute is a transitive verb, meaning it takes an object. We can paraphrase the above three sentences using the noun pollution. We can use the phrase ‘cause pollution ’. Let’s see how we do that.

  • Emissions from cars cause air pollution. .
  • Hazardous waste from landfills caused the pollution of soils.
  • The pollution of our beach was caused by an oil spill.
35 polyp keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/polyp/ [p.aa1.l.ih0.p]

Definition: A solitary or colonial sedentary form of a coelenterate such as a sea anemone, typically having a columnar body with the mouth uppermost surrounded by a ring of tentacles. Polyp can also mean a small mass of tissue that grows in the body.

Example sentences:

  • Most hydrozoans alternate between a polyp and a medusa stage - they spend part of their lives as ‘jellyfish’ which are hard to distinguish from scyphozoan jellyfish.
  • A coral structure is actually composed of hundreds or thousands of tiny animals like sea anemones growing together as a colony. These tiny coral polyps are the builders of the coral reef. Their tiny calcium shells have accumulated over thousands of years to form the largest living structures in the world. 


36 population keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pop-u-la-tion/ []

Definition: All the inhabitants of a particular town, area, or country. All the people or animals of a particular type or group who live in one country, area, or place

Example senences:

  • Many of the world's cities have populations of more than five million. 
  • In 1992 the population of Cairo was approximately 6,500,000.  
  • The country is facing a population explosion.
  • The dolphin population has been decimated by tuna fishing. 
  • In the past eight years, the elephant population in Africa has been halved. 


37 portrait keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/por-trait/ [p.ao1.r.t.r.ah0.t]

A portrait is a portrayal of a person, usually showing their face, but not always. It can be in the form of a painting, sculpture, etc. In art museums, there are many portraits of famous people in history and pop culture.

  • The president wanted to have his portrait painted in the gardens of the White House.

38 portray keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/por-tray/ [p.ao0.r.t.r.ey1]

Portray is a verb that has several different meanings, all of which centralize around the idea of representing someone, or something.

Portray can be used to represent abstractly, typically in paintings, drawings or sculptures.

  • The painter’s goal was to portray the struggle between the middle and working class.

We can also use this word when making a portrait of something or someone.

  • The actress wanted to portray the Queen as she was when she was younger.

We can also use portray when we are assuming the character. For example:

  • The book portrays the principal as a villain.

Lastly, you can use portray when you are writing, or to portray in words.

  • The book portrays the student as being reckless and irresponsible.

39 postulate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pos-tu-late/ []

If you postulate something, you suggest it as the basis for a theory, argument, or calculation, or assume that it is the basis. Example sentences:

  • The theory postulates [=claims, posits] that carbon dioxide emissions contribute to global warming.
  • Scientists have postulated the existence of water on the planet.
40 pottery keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pot-tery/ [p.aa1.t.er0.iy0]

Pottery is ceramic ware made from clay and baked in a kiln. You can mold pottery wit you hands, or use a machine to create bowls, vases, plates, etc.


41 practical keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prac-ti-cal/ [p.r.ae1.k.t.ih0.k.ah0.l]

If something is practical, you can actually use it, or practice it.

Example sentences:

  • We can speculate about the future, but on a more practical level, we have to admit that we simply don't know what will happen.
  • An engineer will address the design's practical problems.
  • She has a lot of practical experience in dealing with these kinds of problems.
  • The practical (meaning actual) effect of the change has been very slight.
  • One of the practical advantages of living in the city is that you have access to public transportation.
  • I have enough practical knowledge of German to get by.


in practical terms

  • In practical terms, the experiment is going to be difficult.


practical experience

  • You have to gain practical experience before you qualify as a solicitor.

practical work

  • Archaeology students are required to do a certain amount of practical work.

practical problems/difficulties

  • The local Social Services Department may be able to help with practical problems.

practical help/support (also practical assistance formal)

  • There will be trained people available to listen and to provide practical help.

practical advice

  • The booklets offer clear, practical advice on running your business.

practical use

  • Knowledge without understanding is of little practical use.

practical considerations

  • There are a number of practical considerations that must be taken into account when choosing a car.

practical implications

  • He was well aware of the practical implications of his theory.



42 practically keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prac-ti-cal-ly/ [p.r.ae1.k.t.ih0.k.ah0.l.iy0]

Practically means nearly, like being practically broke if you have three dollars left in the whole world. If you have practically no free time, you have nearly no free time. If your hair is practically blonde, it is almost blonde.

Example sentences:

  • He'd known the old man practically all his life.
  • I know people who find it practically impossible to give up smoking.
  • We need to discuss the issue practically (meaning sensibly) before we make any decisions.
  • Practically speaking, Alaska is too far to go for just a few days.
  • The project is practically complete.
  • Football is practically a religion in some places.
43 precariously keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-car-i-ous-ly/ [p.r.ih0.k.eh1.r.iy0.ah0.s.l.iy0]

If something is happening or positioned precariously, it's in danger. A glass could be precariously balanced on the edge of a table. You're living precariously if you jump up and down on a lake that's not totally frozen. In your late teens, you're precariously close to the brink of adulthood. When you have one college class left, you're precariously close to having to find a job. Some people like living precariously: they enjoy danger. Other people just get stressed out and prefer to live carefully.

Example sentences:

  • The vase was placed precariously close to the edge of the table.
  • One of my grocery bags was still precariously perched on the car bumper.​
  • The hunter-gatherer lifestyle today survives precariously in remote regions.
44 precaution keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-cau-tion/ []

Definition: A measure taken in advance to prevent something dangerous, unpleasant, or inconvenient from happening

Example sentences:

  • He had taken the precaution of seeking legal advice. Of course I took the precaution of turning my light off first, and it was a lucky thing I did.

45 precedent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prece-dent/ [p.r.eh1.s.ih0.d.ah0.n.t]

Definition: An earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances

Example senences:

  • There are substantial precedents for using interactive media in training


46 precipitation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-cip-i-ta-tion/ []

Precipitation is rain, snow, or hail. An example in a sentence:

  • A tropical climate has warm temperatures throughout the year and a significant amount of precipitation.

Precipitation is also a process in a chemical reaction which causes solid particles to become separated from a liquid.  An example in a sentence:

  • If you would add more sugar to a saturated sugar-water solution, sugar crystals would just gather at the bottom of the glass. This is the precipitation.
47 precursor keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-cur-sor/ [p.r.iy0.k.er1.s.er0]

Definition: A person or thing that comes before another of the same kind; a forerunner:

Example sentences:

  • In his literary spirit he is a precursor of the humanists of the Renaissance.
  • The pre-meal selection of chutneys is a precursor of the sharp flavours to come.

48 predator keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/preda-tor/ [p.r.eh1.d.ah0.t.er0]

A predator is an animal that eats(preys on) other animals. Predators are predatory animals.

Example sentences:

  • Penguins are both predators and prey. They hunt and kill and killed and hunted by seals and sharks
  • Coyotes are the top natural predator of deer.
49 predecessor keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-de-ces-sor/ [p.r.eh1.d.ah0.s.eh2.s.er0]

Definition: A thing that has been followed or replaced by another

Example sentences:

  • The road bridge was built over the town's railway line to replace its predecessor, because of safety concerns.

50 predictably keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-dictably/ [p.r.ih0.d.ih1.k.t.ah0.b.l.iy0]

Definition: in a predictable manner or to a predictable degree

Example sentences:

  • Predictably, they do not want the security of pensions, but the joy of more cash to spend immediately.
  • Retail sales over the past few months have, predictably, been awful, and foreign trade has also gotten clobbered by the huge depreciation.

51 predominant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-dom-i-nant/ [p.r.ih0.d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.t]

The adjective "dominant" means most influential, having the greatest importance. The word “predominant” also means most influential, having the greatest importance, but native speakers wouldn't normally write or say it like that.  Let's look at the following sentences where the two words are used interchangeably in the same context:

  • Newspapers play a dominant role in shaping public opinion.
  • Newspapers play a predominant role in shaping public opinion.

Both sentences are correct, but the first sentence is recommended. Why? Because we want to talk about the influence newspapers have, so we should use dominant. Here the meaning of dominant is “influential”. 


Dominant also means most common. Like the word “dominant”, the word “predominant” also means 'most frequent' or 'most common'. Let's look at the following sentence where the two words are used interchangeably in the same context:

  • The most predominant color in this room is beige. (However, you could also say the dominant color in this room is beige).

What we want to say is that beige is the color mostly used in the room. However, here many people use dominant as well, especially when we mean that the beige color gives the room an overall atmosphere.

So you could also say “the dominant color in this room is beige”.

However, in genetics, Only the adjective dominant can describe characteristics which are heritable even if only one parent carries the genes for those characteristics.  For example:


(Correct!) Brown hair is a dominant trait. (This means brown hair is dominant) 

(Incorrect!) Brown hair is a predominant trait.


52 predominate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-dom-i-nate/ [p.r.ih0.d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ey2.t]

"Dominate" and "predominate" can be used interchangeably in some sentences, normally dominate is used to mean “to have or exert power or influence over sth./sb.” "Predominate" on the other hand is mostly used as “to be the most common”. However, "dominate" can mean “to be the most common” as well and this is where it gets confusing. But more on this later. Let's talk about dominate in the sense of “to rule or control sth.” first. 


Dominate here is almost always used as with an object. We often see it used in business and sports. Let's have a look at some examples:

  • The Chicago Bulls dominated the NBA in 1996.
  • Our company dominates the market for operating systems.
  • Google and Facebook dominate the fast-growing market for online advertising.

You may encounter the word "dominate" in your history or politics class as well. Like in the following textbook sample:

  • The Han Dynasty of China has dominated much of ancient East Asia for a long time.

As said before, dominate can mean 'to be the most common” as well' This usage appears quite often in TOEFL academic lectures or passages. So, let's look at some TOEFL academic style example sentences:

  • Invertebrates dominate deep sea regions = Invertebrates are the most common species in deep sea regions. Invertebrates are animals without a backbone.

  • Mars' atmosphere is dominated by carbon dioxide. = Carbon dioxide is the most abundant gas in Mars' atmosphere.


Okay! Since here the meaning of dominate is “to be the most common”, we can actually use predominate to convey the same meaning. For instance, we could say “Invertebrates predominate in deep sea regions.” instead of “invertebrates dominate deep sea regions.” I will explain why we have to use "in” here in a bit.


Remember we cannot always replace dominate with predominate. Take this sentence here for example: "Our company dominates the market for operating systems." Here dominate means have power and influence over the market. If we use the verb predominate, the sentence becomes "Our company predominates in the market for operating systems. (! awkward )". That's not completely wrong, but native speakers wouldn't normally write or say it like that. This is because “predominate” is not often used in the sense of “control or rule sth” while dominate is. Let me give you a better example using predominate:

  • It appears that oak trees predominate in this forest. (Here it means oak trees are the most common trees in this forest)

Okay! There is another difference between dominate and predominate. The verb “predominate” is an intransitive verb, meaning it doesn't take an object, whereas dominate is a transitive verb, meaning it does take objects. This is why we used “in” with predominate before. Let's look at the following example sentence using “dominate”

  • Carbon dioxide dominates Mars' atmosphere.

As you can see, the verb “dominates” takes the object, which is “Mars' atmosphere. We can change this sentence using predominate because dominate here means being the most common. But we cannot simply exchange the two words. We have to write it like this:

  • Carbon dioxide predominates in Mars' atmosphere.

So we have to use the preposition “in” here, since  “predominate” doesn't take a direct object.


Okay! Let's look at more example sentences of the verb “predominate” where the same applies: :

  • Cottages predominate along the beach. (This means most of the buildings along the beach are cottages)
  • Rain predominates in the tropical regions.  (This means that there is a great deal of rain in the tropical regions)
  • Older people predominate in this neighborhood.


The word predominate is sometimes used with the preposition “over”. So when “A  predominates over B” means “A is more common than B”.  Let's look at the following examples:

  • In the surface soil, oxygen generally predominates over carbon dioxide.
  • In this area, immigrants predominate over local people.
  • Pine trees predominate over oak trees in this park.


You should make sure that you understand the difference between “dominate” and "predominate" as this is crucial to understand the differences between the following words: dominance and predominance and dominant and predominant later.

To help you, we have summarized the differences for you here. As a rule of thumb, you should use dominate when you want to express the meaning of “control or power” and when you have an object. You should use predominate when you refer to something being the most common or being widespread in a certain area. Use dominate when you speak about the influence of sth. and predominate when you talk about numbers.

53 preferable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up

When one thing seems like a better option than another, it is preferable. Example sentences:

  • To me, eating at restaurants is certainly preferable to eating at home.

  • Graduating from high school is usually preferable to dropping out.

54 prejudice keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prej-u-dice/ [p.r.eh1.jh.ah0.d.ih0.s]

Definition: Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience

Example sentences:

  • Preconceived notions are prejudices about what is supposed to happen during the ritual, or the way in which the ritual must be done.

55 premolar keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-mo-lar/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A tooth situated between the canine and the molar teeth. An adult human normally has eight, two in each jaw on each side.

Example sentences:

  • The normal permanent dentition comprises four incisors, two canines, four premolars, and six molars in each jaw.

56 present-day keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/present-day/ [no ipa available]

Present-day things, situations, and people exist at the time in history we are now in.

57 prevail keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-vail/ [p.r.ih0.v.ey1.l]

To prevail means to defeat an opponent especially in a long or difficult contest. The phrase "prevail over/against" is often used.  For example:

  • Our soccer team prevailed [=won] despite the bad weather.
  • He prevailed against/over last year's champion.
  • She prevailed in a lawsuit against her doctor. [=she won a lawsuit against her doctor]


To prevail can also mean to be usual, common, or popular. For example:

  • The house was built in the style that prevailed in the 1980s.

To prevail can also mean to be or continue to be in use. For example:

  • The tribal custom still prevails [=persists] after hundreds of years.

  • The law still prevails in some states.


Finally,the phrase "prevail upon someone to do something" means succeeding in persuading them to do it.

  • They prevailed on/upon me to play a few tunes on the piano.

  • Do you think she could be prevailed upon to do those things?

58 prevailing wind keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-vail-ing wind/ [no ipa available]

Definition: winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface

Example sentences:

  • Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.

59 prevalent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/preva-lent/ [p.r.eh1.v.ah0.l.ah0.n.t]

We can use "prevalent" to describe something (usually a condition, practice, style, disease, or belief) that is widespread.  Here are example sentences:

  • During the early part of the 1920s, New Orleans Jazz was prevalent in many nightclubs in Chicago.
  • Smoking is becoming increasingly prevalent among younger women.
  • Solvent abuse is especially prevalent among younger teenagers.
  • The disease is even more prevalent in Latin America.
  • Shopping via smartphone is becoming increasingly prevalent.
  • Fast food consumption is prevalent in developed countries.
60 primate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pri-mate/ [p.r.ay1.m.ey2.t]

Definition: any member of the group of animals that includes human beings, apes, and monkeys

Example sentences:

  • Primate is an order of mammals such as humans, monkeys, ape, lemurs, bush babies and tarsiers. They are distinguished by the use of hands.

61 primitive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prim-i-tive/ [p.r.ih1.m.ah0.t.ih0.v]

Primitive describe something belonging to a society in which people live in a very simple way, usually without industries or a writing system.  Here are example sentences:

  • The child’s table manners were horrendous like he was a primitive boy.

  • Right up until the mid-1950s there were still regions in Greenland where the Inuits lived in rather primitive, but highly adequate, dwellings.

  • The simplest form of engraving is hand engraving, which has been in use almost since civilization began. Stone-age humans using this primitive form of engraving to make marks and drawings on cave walls, but the human hand is only strong enough to engrave some materials. 

Primitive also describe animals or plants belonging to a very early period in the development of an animal or plant. For example

  • Gars are a primitive fish that inhabit placid waters of the Western Hemisphere.
62 privatization keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pri-va-ti-za-tion/ []

Definition: Transfer (a business, industry, or service) from public to private ownership and control

Example sentences:

  • As elsewhere in the Pacific, Australia is pushing for economic restructuring measures that include drastic cutbacks to government spending and privatisations.
  • Another primary concern of the ANC government is the privatization of state assets

63 proclamation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/procla-ma-tion/ []

Definition: A public or official announcement dealing with a matter of great importance

Example sentences:

  • Army scientists, who are not accustomed to making public health proclamations, wrongly reassured authorities without sufficiently testing the spread potential of this dangerous anthrax.

64 profoundly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-found-ly/ [p.r.ow0.f.aw1.n.d.l.iy0]

Definition: to a great depth psychologically

Example sentences:

  • Trade, technology and socio-economic change can affect agriculture just as profoundly as changes in rainfall and temperature.
  • There are many economists who are profoundly skeptical about China's official data, who think the true figure is a good deal lower.

65 proliferate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-lif-er-ate/ [p.r.ow0.l.ih1.f.er0.ey2.t]

The verb "proliferate" means to increase a lot and suddenly in number.​ When something proliferates, it's growing, spreading or multiplying really quickly. 

Example sentences using the word proliferate:

  • Funny YouTube videos normally proliferate on the internet​
  • The flowers proliferated rapidly all spring.
  • Small businesses have proliferated in the last ten years.
  • Starved of oxygen, malignant cells in many parts of the tumor proliferate and may even become more aggressive.
66 prolific keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-lif-ic/ [p.r.ow0.l.ih1.f.ih0.k]

Definition: (Of an artist, author, or composer) producing many works:

Example sentences:

  • He was a prolific composer of operas

67 prominence keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/promi-nence/ [p.r.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.s]

The noun "prominence" means the state of being prominent, and prominent means famous or well-known, so if someone or something is in a position of prominence, they are well-known and important. You will see and hear the phrases "come to prominence" and "rise to prominence" a lot. These two phrases basically mean "become renowned".  Take a look at the following example sentences:

  • Carla Bley is an American jazz musician and composer who came to prominence in1960s.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger achieved fame as a Hollywood action hero, and first came to prominence as a bodybuilder,
  • With the end of the war, many of the leading minds in Dada moved over to Paris. Paris quickly rose to prominence in the Dada movement as being a centre for performing arts, literature, exhibitions and commentary. 
68 prompt keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prompt/ [p.r.aa1.m.p.t]

The word prompt can be a verb or a noun or an adjective.

When it is used as a verb, there are two patterns:

  • prompt something
  • prompt someone to do something

To "prompt something" means to "make something happen". For example:

  • The president speech has prompted an angry response from both political parties.
  • Recent worries over the president's health have prompted speculation over his political future.

To "prompt someone to do something' means to "make someone decide to say or do something". For example:

  • His comments prompted me to find out more about the situation.

When a computer program "prompt someone to do something', it means the computer program to show a message that tells (a user) to do something.  For example:

  • The computer/program prompted me to type in a number.


When it is used as an adjective, it means quick. For example:

  • We always get prompt service at that restaurant.
  • They've written back already - that was a very prompt reply.
  • Try to be prompt because we'll be very short of time.

The phrase 'be prompt to do something or be prompt in doing something' is used. For example:

  • They are usually fairly prompt in dealing with inquiries.
  • They are usually fairly prompt to deal with inquiries.


When it is used as an adjective, it can also mean on time. For example:

  • Please be prompt to class.


As a noun, it has the following two meanings

  • The lines of a play that are said to an actor who has forgotten them
  • A message that appears on a computer screen asking the user to do something or to provide information.

Here are example sentences:

  • The actor was given a prompt by someone offstage.
69 pronounced keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-nounced/ [p.r.ah0.n.aw1.n.s.t]

Pronounced means strongly marked, or easily noticeable. 

Example sentences using the word pronounced:

  • He walked with a pronounced limp.
  • There has been a pronounced improvement in her condition.
  • The symptoms of the disease have become steadily more pronounced.
  • These blooms have a very pronounced tendency to hang their heads.
70 propagate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prop-a-gate/ [p.r.aa1.p.ah0.g.ey2.t]

To propagate is to produce a new plant or to make a plant to produce a new plant. For example:

  • If you are a great gardener, your plants will likely propagate.
  • We are discovering new ways to propagate plants without seeds.
  • He propagated the apple tree by grafting.
  • The plants failed to propagate.
  • Mathematics has proved useful in understanding how particular tree species propagate across a geographic region.

The verb propagate can also mean to make (thing, such as an idea, message, new, information, or belief) known to many people. For example:

  • The group propagates its antigovernment doctrine on the Web.
  • We must propagate the message.
  • The Internet has given consumers the ability to rapidly propagate information to a large number of people.
  • The newspaper propagates a fake story about the president.

In physics, to propagate means to transmit or be transmitted in a particular direction or through a medium. For example:

  • Sound propagates through a medium such as a solid, liquid, or gas = Sound is propagated through a medium such as a solid, liquid, or gas

71 prophetic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prophet-ic/ [p.r.ah0.f.eh1.t.ih0.k]

Definition: Accurately describing or predicting what will happen in the future:

Example sentences:

  • In European folklore, mermaids are mythical beings who have magical and prophetic powers.

72 proportional keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-por-tion-al/ []

Definition: Corresponding in size or amount to something else:

Example senences:

  • Your salary should be proportional to your contribution to the company.

73 prosperity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pros-per-i-ty/ [p.r.aa0.s.p.eh1.r.ah0.t.iy0]

Use prosperity to refer to the state of being successful. Prosperity usually means the type of success that comes from having a lot of money. 

Example sentences:

  • The island's prosperity depends on its fishing industry.
  • The war was followed by a long period of peace and prosperity.
74 proton keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-ton/ [p.r.ow1.t.aa2.n]

proton is an atomic particle that has a positive electrical charge.

75 provocative keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/provoca-tive/ [p.r.ow0.v.aa1.k.ah0.t.ih0.v]

If you describe something as provocative, you mean that it is intended to make people react angrily or argue against it.​

Example sentences:

  • A provocative book might get people talking about a controversial idea. 
  • He has made a string of outspoken and sometimes provocative speeches in recent years.
  • His behavior was called provocative and antisocial.

​​If you describe someone's clothing or behavior as provocative, you mean that it is intended to make someone feel sexual desire.  For example:​

  • She was wearing a very provocative outfit.


76 proximity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prox-im-i-ty/ [p.r.aa0.k.s.ih1.m.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: Nearness in space, time, or relationship:

Example sentences:

  • Miss Bridges dismissed speculation that the close proximity of the rides had helped the fire to spread.

77 puzzling keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/puz-zling/ []

Something that's puzzling is confusing, or hard to understand. You might also come across particularly puzzling questions on a test or quiz — these are the hard ones, taking a long time to figure out and requiring a lot of thought. “The ending of the book was puzzling, I don’t understand it.


78 paradoxical keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/para-dox-i-cal/ [p.eh2.r.ah0.d.aa1.k.s.ih0.k.ah0.l]

Paradoxical is an adjective that describes a paradox, something with two meanings that don’t make sense together.

Example sentences:

  • He found himself in a paradoxical situation.

  • “I always lie” is a paradoxical statement because if the statement is true, it must be false. 





79 paralysis keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/paral-y-sis/ [p.er0.ae1.l.ah0.s.ah0.s]

Definition: The loss of the ability to move (and sometimes to feel anything) in part or most of the body, typically as a result of illness, poison, or injury

Example sentences:

  • Traditional stroke symptoms were defined as loss of balance and paralysis of at least one part of the body.

80 paraphrase keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/para-phrase/ [p.eh1.r.ah0.f.r.ey2.z]

Definition: Express the meaning of (something written or spoken) using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity:

Example sentences:

  • The answers are paraphrased as I wrote them down as fast as I could.

81 parasitic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-a-sitic/ [p.eh2.r.ah0.s.ih1.t.ih0.k]

Definition: (Of an organism) living as a parasite: (be parasitic on)

Example sentences:

  • Mistletoe is parasitic on trees. Since viruses are parasitic on cellular life, the first life could not have been anything like a virus. Nevertheless, growing these parasitic plants in vitro is difficult, because of their dependence on a connection to hosts for normal development, and because of their specific germination requirements.
  • The third type of symbiosis, mutualism, benefits both partners in the relationship. Legume plants and their nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the interactions between flowering plants and their pollinators, are examples of mutualistic association.


82 parliament keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-lia-ment/ [p.aa1.r.l.ah0.m.eh0.n.t]

Definition: (In the UK) the highest legislature, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons

Example sentences:

  • The annual budget only comes into force once the President of the Parliament has signed it.

83 particle keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-ti-cle/ [p.aa1.r.t.ah0.k.ah0.l]

Definition: a tiny piece of anything

Example sentences:

  • Particles of dust can destroy electronic instruments.
  • At the smallest scales, everything in the universe can be broken down into fundamental morsels called particles.

84 partisan keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/par-ti-san/ [p.aa1.r.t.ah0.z.ah0.n]

Definition: strongly supporting a group or point of view

Example sentences:

  • The new talk show taught us more clearly than professors and politicos how partisan democracy can so easily be tarnished by selfish, corruptible whims.
  • Partisan political infighting caused Congress's influence to decline.

85 pathogen keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pathogen/ []

Definition: A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease

Example sentences:

  • Symptoms and signs of influenza in children are not specific and can mimic a range of other common respiratory viral pathogens.

86 peculiarity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pe-cu-liar-i-ty/ [p.ih0.k.y.uw2.l.iy0.eh1.r.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: The quality of being peculiar

Example sentences:

  • I just kind of conjured them up out of my subconscious and put them in order of ascending peculiarity.

87 perceive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-ceive/ [p.er0.s.iy1.v]

When we perceive something by using our senses of sight, hearing, and smell we become aware of or notice it. The preposition “as”, is often used with the words perceive. For example:

  • Humans perceive sound as a result of vibrations affecting hair cells within the inner ear. When the hair cells are stimulated, they send signals through nerves to the brain.

If we perceive someone or something as doing or being a particular thing using our mind, it is our opinion that they do this thing or that they are that thing. The phrase "commonly/generally/widely perceived" is often used. For example:

  • Stress is widely perceived as contributing to coronary heart disease.
  • Fluorescent light is generally perceived as harsher than incandescent light.​


We can also perceive a person or thing as having certain qualities. For example:

  • Do you perceive yourself as a good student?  
  • He is perceived as one of the best players in baseball.



88 perception keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-cep-tion/ []

Perception refers to the way you take in the world through your senses.

Example sentences:

  • Have you ever thought a stair was bigger than it really was so your step was too heavy? Your depth perception was off.

The noun also means the opinions and beliefs you've formed about something

Example sentences:

  • People's perceptions of this town have changed radically.
  • Retail leaders have found that greeting customers within 10 feet or 10 seconds significantly enhances a customer's perception of the overall experience.
  • We need to gain a clearer perception of how young people feel about the problem.
  • Each generation has a different perception — view, idea or understanding — of what is cool.​
  • These developments hardly affected the public perception of the crisis.
89 perennial keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/peren-ni-al/ [p.er0.eh1.n.iy0.ah0.l]

perennial plant lives for several years and has flowers each year. Perennial is also a noun. Here are example sentences:

  •  Perennials have the capacity to live through many successive growing seasons.
  • This is a perennial plant with greenish-yellow flowers.


You can also use perennial to describe situations or states that keep occurring or which seem to exist all the time; used especially to describe problems or difficulties. For example:

  • There is a perennial urban problem of drugs and homelessness.
  • There's a perennial shortage of teachers with science qualifications.
90 periodic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pe-ri-od-ic/ [p.ih2.r.iy0.aa1.d.ih0.k]

Definition: occurring at specific periods of time

Example sentences:

  • Periodic payments must be made on home loans

91 periodical keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pe-ri-od-i-cal/ [p.ih2.r.iy0.aa1.d.ih0.k.ah0.l]

Definition: A magazine or newspaper published at regular intervals; Occurring or appearing at intervals; occasional:

Example sentences:

  • He has a diploma in journalism and has published several features, stories and poetry in magazines and periodicals
  • At periodical intervals, the network returns the data to a central control room by cellular phone, satellite, or a conventional telephone circuit.

92 permeable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-me-able/ [p.er1.m.iy2.ah0.b.ah0.l]

If a substance is permeable, something such as water or gas can pass through it or soak into it. For example:

  • A number of products have been developed which are permeable to air and water.
  • An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing rock. Water-bearing rocks are permeable and porous, meaning that they have openings that liquids and gases can pass through.
93 persistent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-sis-tent/ [p.er0.s.ih1.s.t.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Continuing firmly or obstinately in a course of action in spite of difficulty or opposition:

Example sentences:

  • The attorney's persistent questioning weakened the witness.

94 pervasive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/per-va-sive/ [p.er0.v.ey1.s.ih0.v]

If you're sick of seeing something because you're seeing it again and again, it must be pervasive. 

If there is a certain trend that you don't like and it seems to spread all over the place, it is pervasiveFor example, when something like a hairstyle is super-common, it's pervasive. 

Let's look at some examples:

  • Playing video games is pervasive among kids.
  • While school is highly important and should be the foremost concern for young people, it should not be so pervasive as to be a part of their daily life outside of class time.
  • Talking about the weather is pervasive among adults.
  • Cram schools are so pervasive in Japan and China.


95 petition keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pe-ti-tion/ []

Definition: to make a request

Example sentences:

  • However, the decision to demolish the hotel has been controversial, with a social media campaign and petitions launched to save it.

96 phenomenon keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/phe-nom-e-non/ [f.ah0.n.aa1.m.ah0.n.aa2.n]

A phenomenon is an extraordinary occurrence or circumstance. In the 1950s, rock-n-roll was considered a new cultural phenomenon, while today we think of crop circles as a mysterious phenomenon. An earthquake, for example, was a phenomenon, because you could see it (and hear it and feel it).  Used in a sentence, “The class was excited to see the eclipse, as it was a natural phenomenon.”


"Phenomena" is simply the plural word for "phenomenon", or it is one or more extraordinary occurrences or circumstances. “May was a great month for astronomists because of the high amount of phenomena in the sky.”Example sentences:

  • The movie eventually became a cultural phenomenon.
  • This form of civil disobedience isn't a particularly new phenomenon.
  • Detailed food labeling is a fairly recent phenomenon.
  • Cloudy water is a common phenomenon in new aquariums.



97 philosophical keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/philo-soph-i-cal/ [f.ih2.l.ah0.s.aa1.f.ih0.k.ah0.l]

Definition: Relating or devoted to the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence

Example sentences:

  • Many philosophers today deny that philosophical questions about knowledge have any special character

98 photosynthetic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pho-to-syn-thet-ic/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.

Example sentences:

  • Two key metabolic factors in photosynthetic cells have been shown to regulate photosynthesis. In photosynthetic organisms light is an essential factor for growth and development.

99 phytoplankton keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/phy-to-plank-ton/ []

Definition: Plankton consisting of microscopic plants.

Example sentences:

  • The Arctic has a runaway lead when it comes to global warming. The rapidly thawing region is heating up twice as fast as the rest of the world. And it’s just getting started. A new study says the warming gap could widen substantially—all thanks to microscopic phytoplankton. As sea ice melts and more light penetrates the ocean surface, phytoplankton flourish. As these zillions of photosynthesizing microorganisms live it up, they have a collectively large impact on ecosystems.

100 pigmentation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pig-men-ta-tion/ []

Definition: The natural colouring of animal or plant tissue

Example sentences:

  • Increased pigmentation in animals, such as these spots, may be genetic, acquired, or associated with pigmented tumors.

101 pinpoint keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pin-point/ [p.ih1.n.p.oy2.n.t]

Definition: Find or identify with great accuracy or precision:

Example sentences:

  • Scientists pinpoint how genetic mutation causes rarly brain damage

102 plague keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plague/ [p.l.ey1.g]

Definition: Any contagious disease that spreads rapidly and kills many people

Example sentences:

  • Diseases like smallpox wiped out the indigenous people in a succession of plagues.

103 planetary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plan-e-tary/ [p.l.ae1.n.ah0.t.eh2.r.iy0]

A planet is an object that revolves around the star. Our earth is a planet. In our solar system, there are 8 planets:

  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune


The adjective of the word “planet” is “planetary”. “Planetary” describes anything related to the planet. For example:

  • A Planetary system
  • Planetary scientists

An example sentence would be :

  • Within our own galaxy, there are probably tens of thousands of planetary systems.

104 plateau keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plateau/ [p.l.ae0.t.ow1]

Definition: An area of relatively level high ground

Example senences:

  • This soil region is in the foothills of the Appalachian plateau, and topography ranges from nearly level to extremely steep.

105 plummet keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/plum-met/ [p.l.ah1.m.ah0.t]

Definition: Decrease rapidly in value or amount:

Example sentences:

  • She said the value of houses has plummeted so low landlords are able to buy property at rock bottom cost and then rent them out for profit

106 poisonous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/poi-so-nous/ [p.oy1.z.ah0.n.ah0.s]

Definition: (Of a substance or plant) causing or capable of causing death or illness if taken into the body

Example sentences:

  • Detoxification once referred to the process of removing some specific poisonous substance from the body.

107 poll keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/poll/ [p.ow1.l]

Definition: the counting of votes (as in an election); questionnaire

Example sentences:

  • The candidate has maintained his leading position in opinion polls — or risen further.
  • A Variety poll from earlier this year found eight of the top 10 most famous, recognizable, and important celebrities to teens were YouTubers.

108 pollinate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pol-li-nate/ [p.aa1.l.ah0.n.ey2.t]

To pollinate is to move the pollen from one plant to another. When a bee, for example, pollinates a flower, it helps the plant reproduce.This word often shows up in TOEFL listening lecture whose topic is related to botany. Other words that you should know are pollinate, pollination.



Example sentences:

  • A bee pollinates a flower with the help of wind.

  • When a bee, for example, pollinates a flower, it helps the plant reproduce.

  • Pollinators such as bees, that pollinate nuts, fruits and vegetables, are directly or indirectly responsible for a significant part of the world’s crop production. The decline of pollinators can impact future food production capabilities. Therefore the diminishing bee population is a serious concern.


109 pollinator keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pol-li-na-tor/ [no ipa available]

A pollinator is an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another.

Example sentences:

  • Honeybees are the primary pollinators for a variety of important fruit crops.

  • Pollinators such as bees, that pollinate nuts, fruits and vegetables, are directly or indirectly responsible for a significant part of the world’s crop production. The decline of pollinators can impact future food production capabilities. Therefore the diminishing bee population is a serious concern.


110 pollute keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pol-lute/ [p.ah0.l.uw1.t]

To pollute is to make (land, water, air, etc.) dirty and not safe or suitable to use. 

The following sentences contain the verb pollute.

  • Car emissions pollute the air.
  • Hazardous waste from landfills polluted the soils in this forest.
  • Our beach was polluted by an oil spill.

As you can see the verb pollute is a transitive verb, meaning it takes an object. We can paraphrase the above three sentences using the noun pollution. We can use the phrase ‘cause pollution ’. Let’s see how we do that.

  • Emissions from cars cause air pollution. .
  • Hazardous waste from landfills caused the pollution of soils.
  • The pollution of our beach was caused by an oil spill.
111 polymer keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/poly-mer/ [p.aa1.l.ah0.m.er0]

Definition: A substance which has a molecular structure built up chiefly or completely from a large number of similar units bonded together

Example sentences:

  • The ability of living organisms to define the molecular composition of a polymer with complete accuracy is an enviable one.

112 popularity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pop-u-lar-i-ty/ [p.aa2.p.y.ah0.l.eh1.r.ah0.t.iy0]

Popularity is the quality of being well-liked and having a lot of supporters and admirers.


Acupuncture has grown in popularity in the West.


In the United States, Americans reportedly preferred alternative therapy in the year 1990, and they are typically spending $US 12 billion annually on unorthodox therapy methods. In Australia, the fading popularity of orthodox medical care has allowed for alternative therapy methods to emerge more substantially.


The popularity of ragtime was enhanced by the easy availability of sheet music, which was pressed cheaply and distributed widely.


113 porous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/porous/ [p.ao1.r.ah0.s]

Something that is porous has many small holes in it, which water and air can pass through. For example:

  • The local limestone is very porous.
114 portraiture keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/por-trai-ture/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The art of painting or taking portraits:

Example sentences:

  • While employed by major commercial studios in Pittsburgh, Detroit and Toronto, he continued his studies of fine art, specializing in portraiture, figure, and plein air landscape painting.

115 portrayal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up

Dorothea Lange's photographs are an accurate portrayal of the Great Depression.


The artist's works were known for their accurate portrayal of the Old West.

116 potent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/po-tent/ [p.ow1.t.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Having great power, influence, or effect

Example sentences:

  • He gave a potent speech at the convention
  • The venom of the coral snake is extremely potent

117 pouch keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pouch/ []

Definition: A pocket-like abdominal receptacle in which marsupials carry their young during lactation.

Example sentences:

  • Two situations are considered, internal development of the embryos in closed incubating, brood or marsupial pouches, and external development in eggs exposed to the external medium. This group includes all of the pouched animals, such as opossums, kangaroos, and Tasmanian devils.

118 practicality keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prac-ti-cal-i-ty/ [p.r.ae2.k.t.ih0.k.ae1.l.ah0.t.iy0]

Practicality means the quality of being appropriate or suited for actual use. If you choose your new shoes based on their practicality, you'll probably buy a pair of sneakers, rather than knee-high boots with five-inch heels.

Example sentences:

  • The debate on the practicality of wind as a source of renewable energy has been going on for decades.
  • His optimism and practicality make him a skilled businessman.
  • The size of the machine makes me doubt its practicality (meaning suitability) for use in the home.
  • I know you like the dressy shoes better than the sneakers, but I think you should choose based on practicality, not style.
119 precarious keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-car-i-ous/ [p.r.iy0.k.eh1.r.iy0.ah0.s]

Use the adjective precarious when something is unstable, dangerous or difficult and likely to get worse. Are you totally broke and the people you owe money to keep calling? You'rein a precarious financial situation! Precarious always signals that help is needed desperately. If your life is precarious or you are in a precarious situation, things could become difficult, maybe even dangerous, for you. If your footing or hold on something is precarious, it is unstable or not firmly placed, so that you are likely to slip or lose your grip. Used in a sentence, “She put herself in a precarious situation by purchasing a car she couldn’t afford.”


Example sentences:

  • He earned a precarious livelihood/living by gambling.
  • She was in a state of precarious (meaning delicate) health.
  • The government is in a precarious position.
  • The strong wind almost knocked him off of his precarious perch on the edge of the cliff.
  • Our financial situation had become precarious.
  • They looked rather comical as they crawled up precarious ladders.



120 precariousness keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-car-i-ous-ness/ [no ipa available]

Precariousness is a state of being in danger or unsure about something. The precariousness of a small child balancing on a rock wall might cause you to wait below with your arms outstretched, ready to catch her. 

Example sentences:

  • The precariousness of your financial situation will not allow us to give you a loan.
  • It’s that very precariousness, the authors argue, that can reinforce the power of the normal, as people constantly try to approximate it.
121 precede keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-cede/ [p.r.ih0.s.iy1.d]

Precede means to move forward, to continue, or to come before. A short speech will precede dinner. This means that a short speech will come before dinner. If B is preceded by A, then B came before A.


122 precipitate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-cip-i-tate/ [p.r.ih0.s.ih1.p.ih0.t.ey2.t]

To precipitate is to cause (something solid) to become separated from a liquid especially by a chemical process. For example:

  • When substances are precipitated by inorganic or organic processes the material is known as chemical sediment.

precipitate action or decision happens or is made more quickly or suddenly than most people think is sensible. For example:


  • I don't think we should make precipitate decisions.
  • Many of our current problems have been caused by precipitate policy making in the past.
123 preconception keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-con-cep-tion/ []

Definition: an opinion formed beforehand without adequate evidence

Example sentences:

  • Our professor encouraged us to dream big about what our life could be like, and not be "boxed in" by ideologies or preconceptions about others.
  • It was a lesson in the ugliness of preconceptions, the peril of jumping to conclusions.

124 predation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-da-tion/ []

Predation is the act of preying on animals especially when you're talking about animals. Here are example sentences:

  • Prey engage in myriad behaviors to avoid predation.
  • Animals are vulnerable to predation.
  • The predation of coyotes on deer has an adverse effect on deer populations.
  • Mortality of white-tailed deer fawns is significant across the East. Predation by coyotes, black bears and bobcats account for most mortality.
125 predatory keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/preda-to-ry/ [p.r.eh1.d.ah0.t.ao2.r.iy0]

Predatory animals are those who kill and then eat — in other words, "prey on" — other animals.

Example sentences:

  • Discovery of theropod fossils indicates that many species of predatory dinosaurs had feathers.
  • Hawks, lions, and alligators are all predatory animals.
126 predicament keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/predica-ment/ [p.r.ih0.d.ih1.k.ah0.m.ah0.n.t]

A predicament is a difficult, confusing, and unpleasant situation. A predicament could be something simple like if you accidentally made plans with two people at the same time, or more serious if you are married but feel like you are in love with someone else. Used in a sentence, “I was in a predicament last year when I couldn’t decide where to live.

The following phrases are often used

  • get oneself into a predicament
  • get out of the predicament
  • in a predicament 

Example sentences using the word predicament:

  • The governor has gotten himself into quite a predicament.
  • I don't know how to get out of the predicament I'm in.
  • Other companies are in an even worse predicament than us.
  • Many young people find themselves in this predicament.


127 predominance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-dom-i-nance/ [p.r.ih0.d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.s]

Similar to the verbs, the noun “dominance” means power and influence over others. And “predominance” means the state or condition of being most common. Let's look an example:

  • The ongoing and increasing dominance of English in world culture and commerce will continue to provide many advantages to Britain in many areas. 

Here we imply “There is a greater influence of English over other languages in world culture”. If we replace “dominance” with “predominance” like the following sentence:

  • The ongoing and increasing predominance of English in world culture and commerce will continue to provide many advantages to Britain in many areas. 

We imply “There is a greater commonness of English over other languages in world culture." So we can change dominance to predominance in this sentence but it changes the meaning slightly from “English being influential” to “English being widespread”.


Let's look at another example using predominance

  • There is a predominance of older people in the neighborhood. (This means there is a greater number of older people in the neighborhood)

Please note that the noun “dominance” isn't really used for the state or condition of being the most common. So, the following sentence is incorrect:


There is a dominance of older people in the neighborhood. (incorrect)


However, since the verb “dominate” can be used in the sense of “to be common”, you could use the verb ”dominate” here,

  •  Older people dominate this neighborhood.

Alright! Here are more examples using “predominance”:

  • Despite the predominance of female teachers in school, administrative positions are held mostly by men. = Despite most of the teachers in school being women, administrative positions are held mostly by men.
  • The predominance of individualist feminism in English-speaking countries is a historical phenomenon.
  • There is an overwhelming predominance of female images in prehistoric art.


Okay! As we know that “”dominance” means the power and influence over others, so the phrase “gain dominance” is often used. For example:

  • Hollywood continues to gain dominance in the international film market.
128 predominantly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-dom-i-nant-ly/ [p.r.ih2.d.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.t.l.iy2]

"Predominantly" basically means "mostly" or the phrase "for the most part". For example:

  • An actor who is predominantly in films appears mostly in movies, but might sometimes do live theater or TV.
  • A neighborhood that is predominantly Indian has mostly Indian people living there, but maybe other groups too, in smaller numbers.
  • When the weather forecast says the day will be predominantly sunny, that means it will be mostly sunny.

Let's look at more example sentences using predominantly:

  • The speech was predominantly (meaning mainly, primarily, mostly) about tax cuts.
  • The light scattered down to the earth at a large angle with respect to the direction of the sun's light is predominantly in the blue end of the spectrum.
  • Evidence indicates that people have always been predominantly right-handed.
  • An Aurora, a natural light display in the sky seen predominantly in the high latitudes, is formed when charged particles emitted from the sun during a solar flare penetrate the earth's magnetic shield and collide with atoms and molecules in Earth's atmosphere.


The adverb dominantly doesn't mean "mostly".  

129 prefabricate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-fab-ri-cate/ [p.r.iy0.f.ae1.b.r.ih0.k.ey2.t]

Prefabricate is to produce synthetically, artificially or stereotypically and unoriginally. Basically, the meaning is mass production. Nothing that is prefabricated is original, or one of a kind. An example in a sentence:

  • The material was cheap and prefabricated, so my mother didn’t want to use it to make my dress.

130 prehistoric keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-his-toric/ [p.r.iy2.hh.ih0.s.t.ao1.r.ih0.k]

Definition: Relating to or denoting the period before written records

Example sentences:

  • The late prehistoric archaeological record at La Crosse is dominated by a series of Oneota village sites.

131 premise keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/premise/ [p.r.eh1.m.ih0.s]

Definition: A previous statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion:

Example sentences:

  • If the premise is true, then the conclusion must be true. More formally, the conclusion of a deduction follows necessarily from the premisses.

132 presence keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pres-ence/ [p.r.eh1.z.ah0.n.s]

Presence is the state of being somewhere. Here are example sentences:

  • The test results showed the presence of bacteria in the water. (This means the results showed that there were bacteria in the water)
  • No one was aware of the stranger's presence.
  • His very presence on the basketball court intimidated opponents.


The phrase "in someone's presence" or "in the presence of someone" means when someone is present. Here are example sentences:

  • Please don't smoke in my presence. = Please don't smoke when I am here.
  • She asked them not to talk about the accident in her presence.
  • I am usually shy in the presence of strangers.


Let’s take a look at the phrase "make your presence felt/heard/known". The phrase means to make people aware of you by gaining power or influence over them. Example sentences:

  • Women are making their presence felt in the industry.
  • The Internet service is making its presence known by doing a lot of advertising.
133 presumably keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-sum-ably/ [p.r.ah0.z.uw1.m.ah0.b.l.iy0]

Definition: by reasonable assumption

Example sentences:

  • Presumably, this new application will encourage participants to eat better and be more physical active.

134 prevailing keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pre-vail-ing/ []

The adjective "prevailing' means common or popular. The collocation "prevailing notion/idea/view = mainstream view" is often used. Here are example sentences

  • She disagrees with prevailing ideas/notions about raising children.
  • The prevailing view seems to be that they will find her guilty.
  • The prevailing notion was that consumers would overwhelmingly replace their laptops and desktops with the hand-held touch-screen devices.

The prevailing wind in an area is the type of wind that blows over that area most of the time. For example:

  • The prevailing wind in this region is from the east. [=the wind in this region usually comes from the east]
135 prevalence keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/preva-lence/ [p.r.eh1.v.ah0.l.ah0.n.s]

The noun "prevalence" means the fact or condition of being widespread or being common. Here are example sentences:

  • The prevalence of ragtime music allowed black music to gain widespread exposure in white communities.
  • Ireland currently has the highest prevalence of asthma in Europe and it is still on the increase.
  • The prevalence of smartphone addiction among teenagers is high across the globe.
  • The prevalence of obesity in the Western world is 20-30 percent and is increasing.
  • Within the twentieth century, television and movies attained an undeniable prevalence across the world. 
  • Jazz developed musically from the upbeat swing of 19th-century ragtime. Ragtime reached prevalence as a form of the blues with higher tempos and more instrumentation.


136 prey keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prey/ [p.r.ey1]

Prey is an animal that is hunted or killed by another animal for food. It is an uncountable noun.

  • The seals are easy prey for sharks.
  • Rodents are prey for avian, reptilian, and mammalian predators.

The phrase “prey on” means to hunt and kill (something) for food. Here are example sentences:

  • The wolves prey on small animals.
  • Owls prey on mice.

The phrase  “fall prey to” means to be killed by (an animal, disease, etc.)

  • The deer fell prey to coyotes.
  • Many people fell prey to disease.

The phrase "fall prey to" can be used to describe one's vulnerability exploited by someone or something in a bad way. Look at the following example sentences

  • It is very common for elderly people to fall prey to scam artists online, who take advantage of their lack of technological know-how.
  • Many major cities, once thought to be untouchable by such attacks, have been falling prey to terrorist activity in recent months.
137 prime keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prime/ [p.r.ay1.m]

Definition: to make ready; first in rank or degree

Example sentences:

  • The directors primed the actors before the performance.
  • The book isn’t vegetarian, but there are so many plant-based options that it’s already occupying a prime spot on my countertop.

138 prism keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prism/ [p.r.ih1.z.ah0.m]

Definition: A solid geometric figure whose two ends are similar, equal, and parallel rectilinear figures, and whose sides are parallelograms.

Example sentences:

  • We will show that the area of this ring is equal to the area of the corresponding cross section of the dome, which implies that the dome and the punctured prism have equal volumes.

139 privatize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pri-va-tize/ [p.r.ih1.v.ah0.t.ay2.z]

Definition: Transfer (a business, industry, or service) from public to private ownership and control

Example sentences:

  • The postal officials reportedly supported Koso as an opponent of government plans to privatize postal services

140 profitability keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prof-itabil-i-ty/ [p.r.aa2.f.ih0.t.ah0.b.ih1.l.ih0.t.iy0]

Definition: (Of a business or activity) yielding profit or financial gain.

Example sentences:

  • That profitability may attract the attention of other potential buyers.

141 profuse keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-fuse/ [p.r.ah0.f.y.uw1.s]

Definition: produced or growing in extreme abundance

Example sentences:

  • While people can certainly be allergic to eating fish, viewing their aquatic beauty should not cause profuse sneezing.
  • The esteemed university was issuing profuse apologies this week after hundreds of early applicants were mistakenly informed that they had been accepted.

142 proliferation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-lif-er-a-tion/ []

The noun "proliferation" is the act of proliferating. The verb "proliferate" means to increase a lot and suddenly in number. We sometimes use this word in a negative sense, as in things that we don’t want to overpopulate.

Example sentences using the word proliferation:

  • The proliferation of mosquitoes would be a disaster.
  • The proliferation of illegal drugs in this country has become a serious social problem.
  • In recent months, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction has become the major concern of the international community.
  • Scientists have produced a drug which is given to cows to aid in the proliferation of certain cells responsible for producing milk.
  • The past two years have seen the proliferation of TV channels.​
  •  There has been a recent proliferation of medical advertising on TV.
  • The proliferation of private cars on the roads in many parts of the world has led to serious problems of pollution and may contribute to global warming.
143 prolonged keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-longed/ []

Definition: Continuing for a long time or longer than usual; lengthy:

Example sentences:

  • Drought is a prolonged, abnormally dry period when there is not enough water to meet normal or expected needs. There will be a prolonged recovery period because of the damage the lorry sustained and its precarious position

144 prominent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/promi-nent/ [p.r.aa1.m.ah0.n.ah0.n.t]

Prominent means "sticking out above the rest either in a literal sense like a prominent nose or a figurative one like a prominent figure in the industry".

In a literal sense, it means sticking out in a way that is easily seen or noticed. For example:

  • He has a prominent nose.
  • This is most prominent peak in the mountain range

In a figurative sense, it means important, famous, and well-known. For example:

  • Claude Monet is a prominent artist of impressionism.

145 prone keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prone/ [p.r.ow1.n]

Definition: likely to do something

Example senences:

  • Passive smoking affects non-smokers and makes them more prone to respiratory infections.
  • The link between adrenalin making people more prone to heart failure is not well established.
  • Most liquids are prone to contract when frozen
  • He is prone to study hard the night before the test


146 propaganda keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-pa-gan-da/ [p.r.aa2.p.ah0.g.ae1.n.d.ah0]

Definition: Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view:

Example sentences:

  • Most blogs are a form of personal propaganda, stating views in an authoritative tone.

147 propagation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/prop-a-ga-tion/ []

The noun "propagation" means the act of producing a new plant. For example:

  • The propagation of healthy plants is very important.
  • Today’s class is plant propagation

The noun "propagation" can also mean the spread of ideas. For example:

  • The rapid propagation of information is now possible with the invention of the Internet.

The noun "propagation" can also mean the transmission of motion, light or sound in a medium. For example:

  • The rate of propagation of sound depends on the compressibility, ocean oceai water at the tropical temperature of 77° F.

148 proponent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-po-nent/ [p.r.ah0.p.ow1.n.ah0.n.t]

Proponent means someone who is in favor of something

Example sentences:

  • She has always been a strong proponent of women’s rights.
  • He was identified as a leading proponent of the values of progressive education.​
  • He is a leading proponent of gun control.
  • You might be a proponent of longer vacations, but your parents are proponents of a longer school year.
149 propose keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-pose/ [p.r.ah0.p.ow1.z]

The verb "propose" means "to suggest a plan". There are three patterns:

  • propose  something
  • propose+ Verb-ing
  • propse+ that + Subject + Verb

Example sentences:

  • The scientists proposed a new theory.
  • The mayor proposed a plan for a new bridge.
  • Several senators have proposed raising the tax. (Notice the verb "raise" is changed to "raising")
  • If a factory were proposed for my community I would feel obligated to support the construction because the positive effects outweigh the negative influences.    
  • Britain is about to propose changes to some institutions.
  • Federal authorities proposed a ban on smoking in public housing.


If you propose to your girlfriend, you propose getting married



150 prosperous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pros-per-ous/ [p.r.aa1.s.p.er0.ah0.s]

The adjective prosperous often describes something having success usually by making a lot of money

If you have a new car, a new high-paying job, and some flashy new shoes, then you could be described as prosperous, meaning you have material success that seems like it will continue to grow.

Example sentences:

  • The company had a prosperous year.
  • After she got a high entrance test score, her parents knew she had a prosperous future
  • Attending colleges might lead you to more prosperous career opportunities.
151 protozoan keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-to-zoan/ [p.r.ow2.t.ah0.z.ow1.ah0.n]

Definition: A single-celled microscopic animal of a group of phyla of the kingdom Protista, such as an ameba, flagellate, ciliate, or sporozoan.

Example sentences:

  • They have been considered animals, protozoans, fungi or space aliens.

152 provoke keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/pro-voke/ [p.r.ah0.v.ow1.k]

Provoke is a verb that means to do something that causes a reaction. For example, you don’t want to provoke a lion, because it is likely the lion will attack. You will generally only hear and use the word “provoke” used in a negative sense. Used in a sentence, “My mom was angry because she knows I provoked my little brother to cause mayhem.”


be easily provoked

  • He is sensitive and easily provoked.



provoke a reaction/response

  • The report provoked a furious reaction from staff.

provoke debate/discussion/controversy/

  • A new book criticising Hollywood has provoked fierce debate in the US.

provoke criticism

  • The introduction of the tax provoked widespread criticism.

provoke protest(s)/an outcry

  • Not surprisingly, the new rules have provoked protests from gun owners.
  • The crackdown provoked an international outcry.

provoke anger/outrage

  • His detention has provoked the anger of his supporters.

provoke opposition

  • The government's proposals provoked widespread backbench opposition.

provoke hostility

  • Aggressive behavior provokes hostility.

provoke violence

  • It was a small incident but it provoked weeks of violence.

provoke interest

  • Their campaign provoked great interest.

provoke laughter

  • Sara's remark provoked faint laughter.



153 psychological keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/psy-cho-log-i-cal/ [s.ay2.k.ah0.l.aa1.jh.ih0.k.ah0.l]

Definition: Of or relating to psychology:Of, affecting, or arising in the mind; related to the mental and emotional state of a person:

Example sentences:

  • The new research looked at psychological tests done 12 months after the first injection.