TOEFL® Vocabulary List

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eclipse keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/eclipse/ [ih0.k.l.ih1.p.s]

Definition: An obscuring of the light from one celestial body by the passage of another between it and the observer or between it and its source of illumination

Example sentences:

  • On average a total solar eclipse is visible from any location only once every few centuries.

ecological footprint keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/eco-log-i-cal foot-print/ [no ipa available]

Ecological footprint is the amount of the earth's energy that someone or something uses. An example in a sentence:

  • I'm trying to reduce my ecological footprint by cycling more and driving less.
ectotherm keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ec-totherm/ [no ipa available]

Ectotherms are animals depending mainly on external heat sources, and their body temperature changes with the temperature of the environment. The adjective is ectothermic

Example sentences:

  • Because reptiles are ectothermic, the embryos of live-bearing females and the eggs of oviparous females deposited in the soil or other locations are subject to fluctuating temperatures.
  • Tortoises are ectotherms because they rely on the environment to sustain their body temperature.
effect keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ef-fect/ [ih0.f.eh1.k.t]
ondemand_video

An effect simply is the outcome or result of something.  The following patterns and expressions are commonly used with the noun effect. Note that A is the cause. B is the effect.

  • The/One effect of A on ___ is B
  • B is an/one effect of A on ___
  • A has/have an effect on ____

 

The first and the second pattern describe what causes the effect - this is the A part -, and they define what the effect - B- is. Additionally, we use the preposition on to define the thing that is impacted by this cause and effect relationship. The third pattern only describes that something has an impact on something else, without actually defining the effect or consequence in detail.

 

Here are example sentences of the first and the second pattern:

  • One effect of advertising on the public is overconsumption.
  • Overconsumption is one effect of advertising on the public.

 

An example of the third pattern could be:

  • Advertising can have a significant effect on the public.

 

In these examples, advertising is what causes the effect. The public is the target. Overconsumption is the effect.
 

We can replace ‘effect’ with the noun ‘impact’.So the above example sentences would become

  • One impact of advertising on the public is overconsumption.
  • Overconsumption is one impact of advertising on the public.
  • Advertising can have a significant impact on the public

 

When we use the noun ‘impact’, or ‘effect’, we often use positive adjectives like ‘positive’, ‘beneficial’ or negative adjectives like ‘negative’, ‘adverse’, ‘harmful’, ‘detrimental’ before it.

 

Let’s look at the following examples:

  • One negative impact of social media on the society is that it leads to addiction.
  • One positive impact of computers on society is that they bring convenience to our lives.
  • Parasitic relationships can have beneficial or harmful effects on hosts.

 

We often use the third pattern, followed by the second pattern when we write a summary.

Here are examples:

  • Globalization has many adverse impacts on developing countries. One negative impact is the acceleration of income inequalities. However, globalization can also have positive impacts on developing countries.One positive impact is that it creates greater opportunities for firms to tap into more and larger markets around the world.

 

  • Nicotine, an addictive substance, has many harmful effects on our health. One detrimental effect of nicotine is that it causes lung diseases. Another adverse effect of nicotine is it causing damage to our brains.

elaborate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elab-o-rate/ [ih0.l.ae1.b.r.ah0.t]

Definition: Involving many carefully arranged parts or details; detailed and complicated in design and planning.

Example sentences:

  • The buildings were all made of white stone, built carefully with elaborate details, as if every family lived in a miniature castle

electric keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elec-tric/ [ih0.l.eh1.k.t.r.ih0.k]

Definition: selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas

Example sentences:

  • The home, most recently featured in an issue of Interiors magazine, showcases an eclectic mix of antiques, flea market finds and contemporary art.
  • She has an electric taste in music, from hard rock to classical.

electrode keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elec-trode/ [ih2.l.eh1.k.t.r.ow0.d]

Definition: A conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region.

Example sentences:

  • At the two ends of the conductor are the electrodes, which gather and disperse the electrons.

element keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/el-e-ment/ [eh1.l.ah0.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: a part of the whole environment

Example sentences:

  • His long, flowing hair often covered his face as he played, the eclectic acoustic elements meshing to eerie effect with the electronics.
  • Hard work and perseverance are the basic elements of success.

elicit keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elic-it/ [ih0.l.ih1.s.ih0.t]

Definition: call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses); to get the facts or draw out the truth

Example sentences:

  • The fund-raising goal, $25,000, was reached shortly before the beginning of the memorial ceremony, eliciting cheers from the crowd.
  • A lawyer will elicit all the facts necessary to prove her case.

eligible keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/el-i-gi-ble/ [eh1.l.ah0.jh.ah0.b.ah0.l]

If you are eligible for something or you are eligible to do something, you’re either qualified for it or allowed to do it. Here are example sentences:

  • If you get good grades, volunteer at the hospital, play varsity sports, and write for your school paper, you might be eligible for a college scholarship.
  • You are eligible for unemployment benefits if you’ve recently been laid off, but not if you've never had a job in the first place.
  • Almost half the population are eligible to vote in today's election.

 

 

elliptical keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/el-lip-ti-cal/ [ih0.l.ih1.p.t.ih0.k.ah0.l]

Definition: Of, relating to, or having the form of an ellipse.

Example sentences:

  • This surface is called an elliptic paraboloid because the vertical cross sections are all parabolas, while the horizontal cross sections are ellipses

embodiment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/em-bod-i-ment/ [eh0.m.b.aa1.d.iy0.m.ah0.n.t]

The embodiment of something gives concrete form to an abstract idea. A flag is the embodiment of a country. When you talk about embodiment, you’re talking about giving a form to ideas that are usually not physical: like love, hate, fear, justice, etc. 

Example sentences:

  • She's the embodiment of all our hopes.
  • Some consider him the (very) embodiment of evil.​
  • He was the embodiment of the English gentleman.
emerge keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/emerge/ [ih0.m.er1.jh]

To emerge means to come out into view or come forth. Emerge is a verb that might bring to mind the image of a whale rising up from the depths of the sea. It is often used with the preposition "from". Let's look at example sentences

  • The moon emerged from behind a cloud. 
  • The whale emerged from the water.
  • New sea floor originates from the upwelling rock as it emerges from the depths of the mantle.

To emerge can also mean to become known or regarded as something. In this case, it is often used with the preposition "as".  For example,

  •  He has emerged as a leading contender in the field.
  • The movie has emerged as one of the year's most surprising hits.
  • Plate tectonics has emerged as one of the grand unifying theories of geology
emergency keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/emer-gency/ [ih0.m.er1.jh.ah0.n.s.iy0]

When there's an emergency, the stakes are high and you may need to act quickly. There's a tornado! Someone's collapsed! The cat's stuck in a tree! It's an emergency! Call 911! You can see the word emerge in emergency, and an emergency suddenly emerges — it happens all of a sudden and can take you by surprise. Governments declare a "state of emergency" if there is a disaster that they can't handle, and they need support.

emerging keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/emerg-ing/ [ih0.m.er1.jh.ih0.ng]

Things that are emerging are just being born — or they're reaching an adult state. The important thing is they're growing and developing.

You could say an improved baseball team is an emerging force in the National League, or a new disease is an emerging threat.

Emerging things can be brand new but aren't necessarily: they could just be beginning to develop. Emerging means something close to sprouting — when you think of this word, think "growing." Used in a sentence, “It is a weird thing when you realize your children are emerging into adulthood right in front of you.”

Let's look at more example sentences:

  • Social media marketing is an emerging trend in marketing.
  • Artificial intelligence is one of the emerging technologies in 2017.
emission keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/emis-sion/ [ih0.m.ih1.sh.ah0.n]

Okay! The noun emission, can either mean the process of emitting sth or it can be used to refer to the gas or light which is emitted itself.

When used in singular the noun refers to the process, as in the following sentence:

  • Humans should try to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

On the other hand, the plural noun "emissions" is used when we talk about fumes and gases from cars and other sources or when we talk about radio waves and light.

  • Vehicle emissions = gases emitted from vehicles
  • Fossil fuel emissions = gases emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels
  • Radio emissions from the sun = radio waves emitted from the sun

 

Okay! Taking the knowledge I just taught you, we can change the sentence “The burning of fossil fuels emits carbon dioxides into the atmosphere.” as follows:

  • The burning of fossil fuels is a source of carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
emphasis keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/em-pha-sis/ [eh1.m.f.ah0.s.ih0.s]

The word emphasis can be thought of as the main point of something. It is often used with the preposition "on". For example,

  • The main emphasis should be on the quality rather than quantity.
  • The dynamics of job qualification have been changed rapidly over the years. Nowadays, more emphasis is given on social skills rather than the qualification.

 

The phrase "put/place/lay (particular/special/great) emphasis on" is often used.

"put/place/lay emphasis on" = "emphasize

Here are examples:

  • put great emphasis on developing good study habits.
  • Schools should place emphasis on physical education.
  • Employers nowadays put more emphasis on social skills rather than the quealifiation. 
enactment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-act-ment/ [eh0.n.ae1.k.t.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: The process of passing legislation

Example sentences:

  • In recent years there has been demand for enactment of legislation enabling the adoption of children.
  • I tentatively support legislative enactment of same-sex marriage - but only when the legislature is constitutionally authorized to do this

encompass keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-com-pass/ [eh0.n.k.ah1.m.p.ah0.s]

Definition: Surround and have or hold within: Include comprehensively:

Example sentences:

  • This policy must encompass all aspects of waste management, including waste minimisation, recycling, re-usage and waste disposal.
  • The course encompasses all the literature of the eighteenth century.

encroach keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-croach/ [ih0.n.k.r.ow1.ch]

To “encroach on/onto” means to take control or possession of something in a gradual way. this usually has a negative meaning, so humans encroach onto the environment means that humans gradually occupy the environment and cause damage to it

Let’s look at two example sentences

  • Humans are encroaching onto the environment at an unprecedented rate so that many untamed landscapes are being given over to farming, industry, housing, tourism and other human developments.
  • Humans encroach on natural resources, leading to mass extinctions of species.

Let’s see how we can paraphrase these two sentences using the noun “encroachment”. 

  • The encroachment of humans on the environment is happening at an unprecedented rate, so that many untamed landscapes are being given over to farming, industry, housing, tourism and other human developments.
  • Mass extinctions of species are caused by the encroachment of humans on natural habitats.

 

Sometimes you will see the words “encroach” and “encroachment” being used to talk about how technology is gradually affecting people’s social behavior. For example

  • Some people believe that Facebook is encroaching on people’s privacy.
  • Some people think text messaging is an encroachment on in-person social interactions.
endangered keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-dan-gered/ [eh0.n.d.ey1.n.jh.er0.d]

An animal that is endangered is close to extinction — meaning there aren't very many of that type of animal left in the world. Here are example sentences:

  • Animals usually become endangered due to overhunting or the destruction of their habitat.
  • The wild water buffalo is considered an endangered species.
  • The wild water buffalo is endangered because their habitats fall to cultivation and commercialization by humans.
endorse keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-dorse/ [eh0.n.d.ao1.r.s]

Definition: to express approval

Example sentences:

  • He supports gay marriage and has endorsed the idea of eventually granting legal citizenship to many of the undocumented immigrants in the country.
  • Shareholders might look into executive reputations before investing, and well-known customers sometimes do that before buying from or endorsing the company.

endotoxin keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-do-tox-in/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A toxin present inside a bacterial cell that is released when it disintegrates.

Example sentences:

  • One of those suspected factors is bacterial endotoxins because they are present in oral and nasal cavities and air pollutants

energetic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-er-getic/ [eh2.n.er0.jh.eh1.t.ih0.k]

Definition: Showing or involving great activity or vitality

Example sentences:

  • Youngsters have already come up with some of their own designs which cater for younger primary school age children up to teenagers who wanted more energetic activities.

engrave keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-grave/ [ih0.n.g.r.ey1.v]

To engrave is to cut or carve lines, letters, designs, etc., onto or into a hard surface. For example

  • They will engrave your initials on the ring for free.
  • She had the ring engraved with her initials.
  • The image was engraved on the plaque.

— often used figuratively

  • That incident was engraved in my memory. = That incident engraved itself on my memory. [=I will never forget that incident]

enhance keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-hance/ [eh0.n.hh.ae1.n.s]

Definition: to increase in a positive way, such as in value, power, or beauty

Example senences:

  • A partially built bridge was shot from ground level to enhance its already towering size.

enigmatic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/enig-mat-ic/ [eh2.n.ih0.g.m.ae1.t.ih0.k]

Something that's enigmatic is tough to figure out. It's puzzling and even mysterious, examples could include a tricky crossword puzzle or who made a crop circle in the field. “I couldn’t understand the enigmatic syllabus until the end of the class.” A good synonym for enigmatic is puzzling.

enlightened keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-light-ened/ [eh2.n.l.ay1.t.ah0.n.d]

Have you ever thought long and hard about a problem and then, suddenly, experienced an "ah-ha!" moment? If your answer is yes, then congratulations! You were enlightened or in possession of a clear understanding of what was otherwise mysterious. Let's look at an example sentence

  • Children are often enlightened frequently as they are learning about the world.

 

enormous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/enor-mous/ [ih0.n.ao1.r.m.ah0.s]

When something is very, very, VERY big, it can be called enormous. To help you remember this word, remember enormous is something that is much bigger than what is normal.

The following collocations are often used:

  • enormous amount of something = immense amount of something = vast amount of something
  • enormous pain
  • immense talent
  • enormous pressure
  • enormous popularity

Example sentences:

  • They live in an enormous house.
  • We chose not to undertake the project because of the enormous costs involved.
  • He enjoys enormous popularity.

We can say something is very big but not we do not say something is "very enormous"

 

enrichment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-rich-ment/ [eh0.n.r.ih1.ch.m.ah0.n.t]

To enrich something means to improve its quality, usually by adding something to it. For example:

  • The soya bean originated in China, is used it as 'green manure' to enrich the soil for growing other crops.
  • It is important to enrich the soil prior to planting. 
  • Their lives were enriched by the experience. = It was a life-enriching experience for them.
  • Their research has enriched [=improved] our understanding of the problem.
  • How can I enrich my vocabulary?

To enrich someone also means to make them richer. For example:

  • They tried to enrich themselves at the expense of the poor.

 

A thing that enriches something is enrichment. For example

  • A reading enrichment program improves education.
  • When vitamins or nutrients are added to food, that's enrichment because it makes the food healthier.

Enrichment can also mean the state of being enriched. For example:

  • Manure contains plant essential nutrients, but overuse of manure on agricultural land can cause nutrient enrichment in soils, consequently leading to groundwater eutrophication.
  • Native North American grasses develop an extensive root system, allowing for greater enrichment of the soil.
enrollment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-roll-ment/ [eh0.n.r.ow1.l.m.ah0.n.t]

The noun of ‘enroll’ is ‘enrollment’. The noun "enrollment" has two meanings:

The first meaning of enrollment is the process of officially joining a course, school, or a service. Here are examples:

  • Enrollment is in the first week of September.
  • Fees must be paid in full at the time of enrollment.
  • Enrollment will take place in the main hall.

 

The second meaning of enrollment is the number of people who signed up for a school. Here are examples:

  • Our college had an enrollment of 2000 students last year.
  • The enrollment of international students has increased over the past 3 years. = The number of international students who signed up for schools has increased over the past 3 years. 

 

We often add words like ‘college’, ‘high school’, ‘undergraduate’,  and ‘international’ ..etc before the noun “enrollment” to give more details about the type of enrollment. Look at the following example sentences:

  • College enrollment across the country has been steadily decreasing for five years.
  • China is the largest sender of international students to the U.S., with Chinese students accounting for 31.5% of all international enrollments in the U.S
  • As a result of declining undergraduate enrollments, many colleges are working to increase recruitment efforts to more effectively attract students.
ensure keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-sure/ [eh0.n.sh.uh1.r]

The word “ensure”, means to make “something” sure, certain, or safe. Our head office will liaise with the suppliers to ensure delivery. Ensure can also mean safeguard or to protect by making certain a problem will not occur. The company's sole concern is to ensure the safety of its employees.

The word “ensure” is often used with an object. Take a look at these example sentences with the word ensure:

  • They took steps to ensure the safety of the passengers.
  • We want to ensure (this means to make certain/sure) that it doesn't happen again.
entrenched keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-trenched/ [eh0.n.t.r.eh1.n.ch.t]

Definition: (Of an attitude, habit, or belief) firmly established and difficult or unlikely to change; ingrained:

Example sentences:

  • In 1995, Lai founded Apple Daily, taking on Hong Kong's entrenched newspapers in a fierce price war.

environmentally friendly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-vi-ron-men-tal-ly friend-ly/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Not harmful to the environment

Example sentences:

  • Europe's airplane engine manufacturers are now pooling their resources to make flying more environmentally friendly.

ephemeral keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ephemer-al/ [ih0.f.eh1.m.er0.ah0.l]

Ephemeral as a noun is anything that is short-lived, and as an adjective anything that lasts a short time.

  • The YouTube star’s popularity was ephemeral.

epilepsy keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/epilep-sy/ [eh1.p.ih0.l.eh2.p.s.iy0]

Definition: A neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions, associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

Example sentences:

  • Pregnancy in women with epilepsy is associated with an increased risk of fetal malformation.

epitaxy keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/epi-taxy/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The natural or artificial growth of crystals on a crystalline substrate that determines their orientation

Example sentences:

  • Maintaining tight control over layer thickness throughout the lengthy low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth process is one of the biggest challenges.

epitomize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/epit-o-mize/ [ih0.p.ih1.t.ah0.m.ay2.z]

If you epitomize something, you are the perfect example of it. Normally, people epitomize abstract qualities, like kindness or truthful, but it can apply to literal things as well.

  • The prince was a very honest man. He epitomized truthfulness

equator keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/equa-tor/ [ih0.k.w.ey1.t.er0]

An imaginary line is drawn around the middle of the earth an equal distance from the North Pole and the South Pole. An example in a sentence:

  • Indonesia is/lies on the equator.
equivocal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/equiv-o-cal/ [ih0.k.w.ih1.v.ah0.k.ah0.l]

If you are equivocal, you are deliberately vague in what you say, because you want to avoid speaking the truth or making a decisionHere are example sentences:​

  • He responded to reporters' questions with equivocal answers.

If something is equivocal, it is difficult to understandinterpret, or explain, often because it has aspects that seem to contradict each other. Here are example sentences:

  • Research in this area is somewhat equivocal.

 

erode keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/erode/ [ih0.r.ow1.d]

If rock or soil erodes or we can say rock or soil is eroded by the weather, sea, or wind, the rock or soil cracks and breaks so that it is gradually destroyed. Here are example sentences:

  • As rain falls through the atmosphere, it picks up CO2 which make rainwater become acidic. As it drains into fractures in the rock, the water begins to erode the rock creating a network of passages
  • Once exposed, soil is quickly eroded by wind and rain.
  • The shoreline has eroded badly.
  • The shoreline was badly eroded by last winter's storms.
erosion keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ero-sion/ [ih0.r.ow1.zh.ah0.n]

Erosion is the process or the act of eroding. 

Let's learn the verb "erode" first.

If rock or soil erodes or we can say rock or soil is eroded by the weather, sea, or wind, the rock or soil cracks and breaks so that it is gradually destroyed. Here are example sentences:

  • As rain falls through the atmosphere, it picks up CO2 which make rainwater become acidic. As it drains into fractures in the rock, the water begins to erode the rock creating a network of passages
  • Once exposed, soil is quickly eroded by wind and rain.
  • The shoreline has eroded badly.
  • The shoreline was badly eroded by last winter's storms.

 

Okay! Now let's look at example sentences using the noun "erosion".

  • Trees prevent soil erosion by soaking up water in areas with high rainfall
  • Centuries of erosion by wind have carved grooves in the rocks.
  • Weathering and erosion contribute to the formation of canyon.
  • Soil erosion is partially caused by rain runoff washing away the soil.
erupt keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/erupt/ [ih0.r.ah1.p.t]

Definition: Be ejected from

Example senences:

  • Possible evidence for this theory concerns the brown ridges that mark the moon's terrain, thought to be caused by instant freezing of liquid water erupting from beneath the ice crust.

escalate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/es-ca-late/ [eh1.s.k.ah0.l.ey2.t]

Definition: Increase rapidly:

Example sentences:

  • The main factor that will put a brake on house price rises next year will be gradually escalating interest rates.

establishment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/es-tab-lish-ment/ [ih0.s.t.ae1.b.l.ih0.sh.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: The action of establishing something or being established

Example sentences:

  • Wahid proposed the establishment of an independent monitoring commission to work toward peace, but was ousted in July 2001.

estimation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/es-ti-ma-tion/ [eh2.s.t.ah0.m.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

The noun estimation can mean opinion. Look at the following examples:

  • My estimation of his films was never very high. [= I never thought his films were very good]

  • This is not, in my estimation, an efficient use of our resources.

Another definition of estimation is an approximate calculation of something's value, size, amount ..etc. For example:

  • If you go to an auction, you can often review a catalog that will have an estimation of the value of each item for sale. Sometimes the items sell for more than the estimation and sometimes less.
  • You may ask a contractor for an estimation before you decide to build a deck on the back of your house.
  • The analysis of ancient DNA in bones and teeth is now the most widely used method for age estimation in the field of archaeology.

 

evaporate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/evap-o-rate/ [ih0.v.ae1.p.er0.ey2.t]

To change from a liquid state into a gaseous state, we can use the verb ‘evaporate’. ‘Evaporate’ is an intransitive verb as well. For example:

  • The warmer temperatures cause the liquid to evaporate into a gas.​
  • Water evaporates rapidly in hot weather.
eventually keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/even-tu-al-ly/ [ih0.v.eh1.n.ch.ah0.w.ah0.l.iy0]

Definition: after an unspecified period of time or an especially long delay

Example sentences:

  • He believes the technology will eventually lead to people being able to communicate "brain to brain" via a high-bandwidth network.
  • A good education will eventually pay big dividends.

evident keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ev-i-dent/ [eh1.v.ah0.d.ah0.n.t]

Definition: capable of being seen or noticed; clearly revealed to the mind

Example sentences:

  • It seems fairly evident that, given a choice, you should raise your child to speak more than one language.
  • The promise of precision medicine for cancer is now clearly evident.

evolve keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/evolve/ [ih0.v.aa1.l.v]

Definition: to grow; undergo development or evolution

Example sentences:

  • Companies that launched with digital DNA still have to run fast to keep up with rapidly evolving technologies and consumer expectations.

exaggerate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ag-ger-ate/ [ih0.g.z.ae1.jh.er0.ey2.t]

Definition: to make something more than what it is

Example sentences:

  • Narcissists typically enjoy conflict and will readily lie or exaggerate to gain the upper hand.
  • Like other controversial topics, it is a subject where media coverage is likely to play a role in exaggerating misconceptions.

excavation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ca-va-tion/ [eh2.k.s.k.ah0.v.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Excavation is the act or process of digging, especially when you are digging to remove something from the ground. Archaeologists often excavate different artifacts. It can also be the hole in the ground made by the digging. Here are example sentences:

  • The townspeople were bothered by the excavation site the archaeologists had set up.
  • Mesolithic Britain was thought to have been inhabited by hunter-gatherers, however, the recent excavation of a dwelling in Northumbria reveals our Stone Age ancestors to have been ingenious and elaborate house builders.​
exceptional keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-cep-tion-al/ [ih0.k.s.eh1.p.sh.ah0.n.ah0.l]

Definition: unusual in a positive way

Example sentences:

  • With an Instagram video, you can spend fifteen seconds watching something exceptional being made before your eyes.
  • They get an edge and make exceptional returns by finding the next big thing before other investors become aware of the opportunity and pile on.

excessive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ces-sive/ [ih0.k.s.eh1.s.ih0.v]

Excessive means beyond what is typical or normal. When something is excessive, there's way too much. 

  • In today’s world with overpopulation and excessive pollution, the environment is in serious trouble. 
  • Excessive consumption of carbs and fats occurs when you eat more than the recommended daily values.
  • Excess calories from fast-food meals can cause weight gain. 
  • Excessive nutrient intake may result in excessive weight gain during pregnancy,
exclusive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-clu-sive/ [ih0.k.s.k.l.uw1.s.ih0.v]

Something is exclusive is something people don't often have access to. For example:

  • The only way you might get reservations at one of the most exclusive restaurants in Los Angeles is to become famous. 

Exclusive can also mean sole or only. For example:

  • The company became the exclusive soda vendor at the new stadium.
  • The local newspaper got an exclusive interview and broke the news. 
  • We have exclusive use of the beach. (This means we are the only ones who can use the beach)
  • The company has exclusive rights to (use) the logo.

In today’s slang, “exclusive” can also refer to dating, for example “Are you and Tom exclusive?” This means is Tom the only person you are dating?

 

excrete keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-crete/ [ih0.k.s.k.r.iy1.t]

Definition: separate and expel as waste (a substance, especially a product of metabolism)

Example senences:

  • Usually, a pregnant woman with preeclampsia develops dangerously high blood pressure and begins excreting protein in the urine.

 

exemplify keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-em-pli-fy/ [ih0.g.z.eh1.m.p.l.ah0.f.ay2]

If A exemplify B, A is the perfect(typical) example of B. 

Look at the following sentences:

  • The behavior of a harmless king snake resembling a venomous coral snake is a typical example of visual mimicry. = The behavior of a harmless king snake resembling a venomous coral snake exemplifies visual mimicry.
exhale keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-hale/ [eh0.k.s.hh.ey1.l]

Definition: Breathe out in a deliberate manner:

Example sentences:

  • The basic technique is what's call ‘continuous circular breathing’, where one breathes slowly and deeply, exhaling without pause and then inhaling, again without a pause or break.

exhausting keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-haust-ing/ [ih0.g.z.ao1.s.t.ih0.ng]

Definition: having a debilitating effect

Example senences:

  • I’m bored most of the time, and the workload is exhausting

exist keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ist/ [ih0.g.z.ih1.s.t]

The verb "exist" means to live, to have reality. It's not only "live" things that exist. The government exists, as does your fear of heights. Anything that can be acknowledged in the present exists. Another meaning for the verb exists is to support oneself or survive. If someone doesn't have a job, they may have to exist on unemployment benefits until they find one.

Let’s take a look at some sentences where the verb "exist" means to live, to have reality:

  • She believes that ghosts really do exist.
  • It's the largest galaxy known to exist.
  • Does life exist on Mars?
  • The Internet didn't exist then 200 years ago.
  • Dinosaurs existed for about 150 million years during three geologic periods
  • Those ideas only exist in your mind.

In the last sentence: Those ideas only exist in your mind; means that the ideas are only in your mind.

Now, here are some example sentences where the verb "exist" means to support oneself or survive. It is used with the preposition "on":

  •  I can barely exist on this wage.

This sentence means that the individual’s wage is not enough to survive on or support oneself. He/she may have to find a better job which pays higher wages to survive on or support himself/herself.

  • Villagers existed on rainwater in the jungle = Villagers subsisted on rainwater in the jungle.

This sentence means that villVillagers survived on rainwater in the jungle. You can also use "subsist on".

 

existing keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ist-ing/ [ih0.g.z.ih1.s.t.ih0.ng]

If something is existing it’s real. When you make a list of existing mammals, you can't include unicorns, because they don't really exist. Something that's real can be said to exist or to be existing. The existing laws in your state are the ones that are actually on the books, and your existing friends are the ones you really have, and who are all alive and well. 

Example sentences using existing

  • The company plans to ignore existing problems and move forward with their plans
  • Changing the existing formation can improve the team’s performance
  • Please don't ignore existing problems
  • making changes to the existing structure (This means the structure that is there now)
exotic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ot-ic/ [ih0.g.z.aa1.t.ih0.k]

Something unusual or something from an unusual place is exotic. Something you like, or dislike can be considered exotic, as long as it isn’t something that you are used to.

  • The food in Thailand was too exotic for her pallet, since she came from America.
  • She loved the exotic art, she purchased it to keep in her house.
expanded keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pand-ed/ [ih0.k.s.p.ae1.n.d.ah0.d]

Something that is expanded has been increased in sizeIt can also be an increase in content.  For example,

  • If you want the expanded edition of the DVD, it would probably have behind the scene features.
expedite keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pe-dite/ [eh1.k.s.p.ih0.d.ay2.t]

Definition: Make (an action or process) happen sooner or be accomplished more quickly

Example sentences:

  • From extracting gold powder from riverbeds by using mercury to the open-pit mining, man has come long way in refining and expediting the process of extraction.

expenditure keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pen-di-ture/ [ih0.k.s.p.eh1.n.d.ah0.ch.er0]

Expenditure is money spent on something. Expenditure is often used when people are talking about budgets. It is the government's job to decide what to do with tax money collected, or in other words, to determine the expenditure of public funds. The word is more than a long way of saying expense.

In business, expenditure implies an investment, something that will bring value over time. 

 

Here are some example sentences using the word expenditure as an amount of money that is spent on something:

  • Your income should exceed your expenditures. [=you should earn more money than you spend]
  • In a trip budget, you need to add up all your expenditures, such as hotel, car rental and food costs against the money you have brought to spend. If your expenditures are more than your budget, you will have problems.​

 

Let’s look at an example sentence using the word expenditure to imply an investment:

  • The company allocated a huge part of its expenditure on its expansion project
experience keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pe-ri-ence/ [ih0.k.s.p.ih1.r.iy0.ah0.n.s]
ondemand_video

The word experience is a noun.

When the noun "experience" refers to a past event, it is countable. For example,

  • I have many embarrassing experiences during my childhood.
  • The most memorable experience I have ever had is my graduation trip to Europe.

 

But when its meaning is the length of time that you have spent doing something or when we talk about a skill or knowledge that you get by doing something, it is uncountable. In this case, you will often see the preposition “in”, “with‘, and “of” used with the word experience. Let’s look at how to properly use them.

 

Experience in sth.” is used when we refer to a particular field. For example,

  • I have a lot of experience in sales and marketing.
  • I have experience in teaching.
  • I have five years of experience in software engineering.

Experience with something” is used when we refer to something more specific. For example,

  • I have a lot of experience with working with children.
  • I have 10 years of experience with managing projects.

 

Okay! Sometimes you can hear “have experience of something’, it is used to say somebody has done something before. For example,

Do you have the experience of fixing a car? = Have you ever fixed a car?

 

exploitable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ploitable/ [no ipa available]

The adjective exploitable describe something that can be manipulated to one's advantage. Here is an example sentence:

  • It is estimated that there won’t be any exploitable fossil fuels reserves by 2060.

exponentially keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-po-nen-tial-ly/ [eh2.k.s.p.ow0.n.eh1.n.sh.ah0.l.iy0]

Definition: in an exponential manner.

Example sentences:

  • Traffic, on both these roads, has increased exponentially in recent years. Inflation is growing exponentially.

extensive keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ten-sive/ [ih0.k.s.t.eh1.n.s.ih0.v]

Definition: large in spatial extent or range or scope or quantity

Example sentences:

  • Because the structure had been left unoccupied since 1980 and had incurred damage during Hurricane in 1989, the restoration was quite extensive.
  • The extensive snowfall caused problems throughout the city.

extinction keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-tinc-tion/ [ih0.k.s.t.ih1.ng.k.sh.ah0.n]

When a species went/became extinct, it means it no longer exists. Here are some usages:

  • Dinosaurs are extinct animals.
  • Dinosaurs went extinct about 65 million years ago.
  • Polar bears may become extinct due to global warming.
  • Western Black Rhinoceros went extinct in 2011 = The Western black rhino was declared extinct in 2011

In geology, extinct means a volcano is no longer active. For example

  • an extinct volcano

 

Okay! The noun ‘extinction’ obvious means the state of becoming extinct. Let’s try paraphrase this sentence using ‘extinction’.

  • Polar bears may become extinct due to global warming.

Here is the paraphrased version

  • Global warming might lead to the extinction of polar bears.

 

Let try another one

  • Many animals went extinct as human encroached on natural habitats.

Here is my paraphrased version

  • Human encroachments on natural habitats led to mass extinctions of species.

 

Here! Notice that extinction is plural because we are talking about many species becoming extinct.

 

Okay! Let’s look at some collocations often used with ‘extinct’ and ‘extinction’. To name a few:

  • in the danger of becoming extinct = in the danger of extinction
  • on the brink of becoming extinct = on the brink of extinction
  • Be headed for extinction = race toward extinction
  • Put __ at risk of extinction

 

Here are examples

  • Several bird species are on the brink of extinction.
  • Giraffes are in the danger of extinction.
  • The tiger is headed for extinction because of development and hunting.
  • The introduction of foxes put many native species at risk of extinction.
extrinsic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-trin-sic/ [eh0.k.s.t.r.ih1.n.s.ih0.k]

The opposite of intrinsic is extrinsic. Extrinsic means not connected to the essential nature of something.  This means you are looking for outside advantages in order to complete or do something. It could also mean something that you have no control over. For example:

  • The flight was canceled due to extrinsic circumstances.
  • The show was canceled due to extrinsic conditions.​

Let’s take a look at the use of the word extrinsic meaning coming from the outside of something not connected to the essential nature of something:

  • You have to consider any extrinsic factors in the success of the business.

 

ecological keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/eco-log-i-cal/ [iy0.k.ah0.l.aa1.jh.ih0.k.ah0.l]

Ecological describe something relating to ecology or the environment. Examples:

  • The destruction of the rain forests is an ecological disaster.
  • The ecological effects of the factory need to be balanced against the employment it generates.
  • The ecological consequences of a nuclear war are incalculable.
ecosystem keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ecosys-tem/ [iy1.k.ow0.s.ih2.s.t.ah0.m]

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.

ectothermic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ec-tother-mic/ [no ipa available]

Definition: of animals except birds and mammals; having body temperature that varies with the environment

Example senences:

  • Many ectothermic species demonstrate behavioral thermoregulation following feeding in an attempt to increase body temperature, thus increasing temperature-dependent rate processes associated with metabolism.

 

eject keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/eject/ [ih0.jh.eh1.k.t]

Definition: Force or throw (something) out in a violent or sudden way

Example sentences:

  • Lumps of viscous lava were ejected from the volcano

elasmobranch keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elas-mo-branch/ [no ipa available]

Definition: A cartilaginous fish of a group that comprises the sharks, rays, and skates

Example sentences:

  • Like other elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), skates are vulnerable to overfishing because they mature late.

electricity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elec-tric-i-ty/ [ih0.l.eh2.k.t.r.ih1.s.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: A form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles (such as electrons or protons), either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current.

Example sentences:

  • The electricity was back on. Today many of these buildings are in rubble, and food and electricity are in short supply. On top of that there is no electricity medical services and even the water supply is below standard.

electron keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elec-tron/ [ih2.l.eh1.k.t.r.aa0.n]

Definition: A stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids

Example sentences:

elementary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/el-e-men-tary/ [eh2.l.ah0.m.eh1.n.t.r.iy0]

Definition: simple in structure, easy to do

Example sentences:

  • No one wants to send elementary school children on public transportation by themselves through crime-ridden neighborhoods.
  • Particle decay occurs when elementary particles spontaneously transform into other elementary particles.

eligibility keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/el-i-gi-bil-i-ty/ [eh2.l.ih0.jh.ah0.b.ih1.l.ih0.t.iy0]

If you're qualified for something, you have eligibility. For example,  having a valid driver's license means you have the eligibility to drive a car. Let's look at an example sentence:

  • You have the eligibility to take an upper-level computer class. = You are eligible to take an upper-level computer class.

 

eliminate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elim-i-nate/ [ih0.l.ih1.m.ah0.n.ey2.t]

As eliminate means "get rid of or do away with," it has become used to refer to the end of a problem or even an entire species. Here are examples

  • We need to eliminate sources of pollution in order to maintain a healthy world.  
  • Doctors seek to eliminate the causes of the epidemic.
  • Eliminating an entire species could set off a cascade of unexpected effects that could result in the "collapse of ecosystems".

We can also use "eleminate something from one's diet' as in the following sentences:

  • My doctor said I needed to eliminate sugar from my diet.
  • She's trying to eliminate fatty foods from her diet.
elude keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/elude/ [ih0.l.uw1.d]

Definition: escape, either physically or mentally

Example sentences:

  • In March, when we are antsy for all things spring yet blooms elude us, we can enjoy dried flowers from natural food and ethnic markets.
  • The criminal has eluded the police for months.

embody keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/em-body/ [ih0.m.b.aa1.d.iy0]

To embody a role is to fill it completely. If you embody someone, you put him or her "in-body," as when an actor gives a complete and compelling representation of a character. Used in a sentence, “The award-winning actress studied for weeks so could properly embody the character she was playing.”

You can also use embody to describe character traits you see in a person, like, “He embodies truth,” or, “She is the embodiment of goodness.”

The embodiment of something gives concrete form to an abstract idea. A flag is the embodiment of a country. 

 

Example sentences:

  • He is a leader who embodies courage.
  • The legislature embodied a revenue provision in the new law.
  • The new law embodies a revenue provision.
emergence keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/emer-gence/ [ih0.m.er1.jh.ah0.n.s]

Emergence is when something becomes known. For example:

  • The emergence of e-books causes the paper book sales to decline.
  • The emergence of the Internet as an important means of communication revolutionized how we communicate.

Emergence can also mean when something comes into view.

  • The Mesozoic Era saw the emergence of the dinosaurs, more specifically, the Cretaceous Period. 
  •  This fossil is the earliest evidence for the emergence of dinosaurs.
emergent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/emer-gent/ [ih0.m.er1.jh.ah0.n.t]

Emergent is an adjective that describes something that is emerging, or suddenly coming into existence. It's often used in phrases like “emergent technologies.” These are brand-new technologies that we can expect to be widely used in the near future. For example:

  • The Internet was an emergent technology in the early 1990s.

Emergent sometimes implies that what is coming into being is surprising and demands a response.  In this sense, emergent is related to emergency.  For example:

  • An emergent disease would send scientists scrambling to find a cure.
  • If you have an emergent talent for science, your teacher might bump you up to an advanced science class. 

 

emigration keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/em-i-gra-tion/ [eh2.m.ah0.g.r.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Emigration is when one person leaves their country to move to another country forever. Often, you use this noun when people leave their homeland in search of a better life.

  • Because of the high amount of emigration, our country is having a population problem.
  • My ancestors sought emigration after the new ruler took over their land.
emit keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/emit/ [ih0.m.ih1.t]

To emit means to send out light or gas from somewhere and is often used to refer to the gases and smog coming out of power plants or cars. Here is an example:

  • The burning of fossil fuels emits carbon dioxides into the atmosphere.

We could paraphrase this sentence using the verbs ‘release’ or ‘give off’. Let’s look at the example.

  • The burning of fossil fuels releases/gives off carbon dioxides into the atmosphere.

 

Okay! The noun emission, can either mean the process of emitting sth or it can be used to refer to the gas or light which is emitted itself.

When used in singular the noun refers to the process, as in the following sentence:

  • Humans should try to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

On the other hand, the plural noun "emissions" is used when we talk about fumes and gases from cars and other sources or when we talk about radio waves and light.

  • Vehicle emissions = gases emitted from vehicles
  • Fossil fuel emissions = gases emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels
  • Radio emissions from the sun = radio waves emitted from the sun

 

Okay! Taking the knowledge I just taught you, we can change the sentence “The burning of fossil fuels emits carbon dioxides into the atmosphere.” as follows:

  • The burning of fossil fuels is a source of carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
emphasize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/em-pha-size/ [eh1.m.f.ah0.s.ay2.z]

To emphasize is to make something important, or stress it, like when you were little and your parents would always emphasize the importance of looking both ways before crossing the street. They told you again and again and again. And again. The verb "emphasize" works when you really want to stress a point or give extra weight to an issue.

There are four patterns with the word "emphasize"

  • emphasize something
  • emphasize that
  • emphasize how/what
  • It should be emphasized that

Let's look at example sentences

  • My parents emphasized the importance of a healthy lifestyle, so I wouldn’t develop diabetes like my brother and sister.
  • Their father always emphasized the importance of discipline.
  • Schools should emphasize physical education.
  • I want to emphasize that working hard is important.
  • The government should emphasize how to eradicate the poverty.
  • It should be emphasized that this is only one possible explanation.

Note that students often use "emphasize on". This is incorrect. You can use "place emphasis on"  instead.

 

encircle keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-cir-cle/ [eh0.n.s.er1.k.ah0.l]

Definition: form a circle around

Example sentences:

  • The Southern Ocean encircles Antarctica and is home to a unique upwelling current that cycles carbon between the atmosphere and deep water.
  • Soft lights encircle the room like a bright twilight horizon and diffuse across the ceiling so seamlessly that there appears to be nothing overhead.

encourage keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-cour-age/ [eh0.n.k.er1.ih0.jh]

Encourage means to make (someone) more determined, hopeful, or confident. It is also used to make (something) more appealing or more likely to happen.  The word is often used to tell or advise (someone) to do something. 

There are two patterns 

  • encourage + sb + to + Verb
  • encourage + noun

Here are examples of the first pattern:

  • I encourage you to exercise more
  • My parents encouraged me to go back to college.

Here are examples of the second pattern:

  • The program is meant to encourage savings.
  • Warm weather encourages plant growth.
  • I encourage exercising more.

 

The word is often used as (be) encouraged as seen below:

  • We were encouraged by their enthusiasm.
  • Researchers are encouraged by the findings.
  • I am encouraged that the project seems to be moving ahead.

 

 

encroachment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-croach-ment/ [eh0.n.k.r.ow1.ch.m.ah0.n.t]

To “encroach on/onto” means to take control or possession of something in a gradual way. this usually has a negative meaning, so humans encroach onto the environment means that humans gradually occupy the environment and cause damage to it

Let’s look at two example sentences

  • Humans are encroaching onto the environment at an unprecedented rate so that many untamed landscapes are being given over to farming, industry, housing, tourism and other human developments.
  • Humans encroach on natural resources, leading to mass extinctions of species.

Let’s see how we can paraphrase these two sentences using the noun “encroachment”. 

  • The encroachment of humans on the environment is happening at an unprecedented rate, so that many untamed landscapes are being given over to farming, industry, housing, tourism and other human developments.
  • Mass extinctions of species are caused by the encroachment of humans on natural habitats.

 

Sometimes you will see the words “encroach” and “encroachment” being used to talk about how technology is gradually affecting people’s social behavior. For example

  • Some people believe that Facebook is encroaching on people’s privacy.
  • Some people think text messaging is an encroachment on in-person social interactions.
endemic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-dem-ic/ [eh0.n.d.eh1.m.ih0.k]

If a disease or illness is endemic in a place, it is frequently found among the people who live there. For example:

  • Polio was then endemic among children my age.

If you say that a condition or problem is endemic, you mean that it is very common and strong, and cannot be dealt with easily. For example:

  • Street crime is virtually endemic in large cities.

If you say a species is endemic to a region, you mean it is native to a certain region. The phrase "be endemic to" is often used. For example:

  • The species was endemic to the island, which brought tourists from all over the world.
  • Kangaroos are endemic to Australia.
  • Some island species are found nowhere else apart from these areas – we call them endemic species. 
endotherm keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-dotherm/ [ic..eh2.n.d.ow0.th.er1.m.ih0.k]

Definition: An animal that is dependent on or capable of the internal generation of heat.

Example sentences:

  • However, the problem is severe for an endotherm, particularly a small endotherm, which must maintain a steady internal temperature and has a considerably greater demand for respiratory oxygen.
  • Extant birds are accomplished endotherms and many maintain the highest body temperatures.
  • Endotherms are animals that maintain a constant body temperature even when environmental temperatures fluctuate. In contrast, the environment regulates the body temperature of ectotherms and thus their metabolic rate tends to be lower than the metabolic rates of endotherms, which must maintain a high, constant body temperature.

endure keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-dure/ [eh0.n.d.y.uh1.r]

Definition: undergo or be subjected to

Example sentences:

  • It seemed impossible that anyone could endure such pain

engender keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-gen-der/ [eh0.n.jh.eh1.n.d.er0]

Definition: to cause something new to exist

Example sentences:

  • Economic conditions in the 1950s engendered an era of industrial growth.
  • He engenders loyalty with both surprising kindness and utmost competence.

engross keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-gross/ [ih0.n.g.r.ow1.s]

Definition: devote (oneself) fully to; consume all of one's attention or time

Example sentences:

  • The teacher's lecture engrossed the entire class.
  • The hotel lobby was empty when we arrived and the sole receptionist was engrossed in her cellphone.

enhancement keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-hance-ment/ [eh0.n.hh.ae1.n.s.m.ah0.n.t]

The noun enhancement comes from the verb enhance, meaning "to increase or improve," and it can describe anything that's an improvement to the quality or value of something. An enhancement makes something better.​ It is often used with the preposition "to". Look at the following example sentences.

  • People might make surgical enhancements to their faces and bodies to make themselves look better
  •  An enhancement to your recipe makes it taste better. An enhancement to your outfit makes it look snappier.
  • An enhancement to your camera lens makes it take clearer photos.
enlighten keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-light-en/ [eh2.n.l.ay1.t.ah0.n]

To enlighten someone means to explain something clearly to him. If your friend is behaving strangely but insists she has a reason for it, you could ask her to enlighten you.We use enlighten as a verb meaning to clear up, to remove confusion. For example, “Can you enlighten me? I don’t understand the wedding plans.”

enlightenment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-light-en-ment/ [eh2.n.l.ay1.t.ah0.n.m.ah0.n.t]

Enlightenment is education or awareness that brings change, such as your enlightenment about nutrition that leads you to throw out every last bit of your family's junk food. Used in a sentence, “I had an enlightenment that led me to stop drinking alcohol.”

enrich keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-rich/ [eh0.n.r.ih1.ch]

To enrich something means to improve its quality, usually by adding something to it. For example:

  • The soya bean originated in China, is used it as 'green manure' to enrich the soil for growing other crops.
  • It is important to enrich the soil prior to planting. 
  • Their lives were enriched by the experience. = It was a life-enriching experience for them.
  • Their research has enriched [=improved] our understanding of the problem.
  • How can I enrich my vocabulary?

To enrich someone also means to make them richer. For example:

  • They tried to enrich themselves at the expense of the poor.

 

A thing that enriches something is enrichment. For example

  • A reading enrichment program improves education.
  • When vitamins or nutrients are added to food, that's enrichment because it makes the food healthier.

Enrichment can also mean the state of being enriched. For example:

  • Manure contains plant essential nutrients, but overuse of manure on agricultural land can cause nutrient enrichment in soils, consequently leading to groundwater eutrophication.
  • Native North American grasses develop an extensive root system, allowing for greater enrichment of the soil.
enroll keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-roll/ [eh0.n.r.ow1.l]

In British English, the spelling is ‘enrol’ with one ‘l’ only.

As a transitive verb, the word ‘enroll’ means to get someone officially registered as a member of an organization or a school. In this case, the pattern is

____(sb) enrolls __ (sb) in ___ (a school, a program, or an organization)

For example

  • My neighbors enrolled their children in a private school.

  • I enrolled myself in a weight-loss program.

Or it simply means to take someone as a member. Here is an example:

  • The college enrolls about 25,000 students every year.

 

As an intransitive verb, it is followed by the preposition ‘in’. So ‘to enroll in’ means to officially register a course, a school, or an organization. The pattern is

___ (sb) enrolls in ___ (a course, a school, or an organization)

Here are examples:

  • I enrolled in the history course.

  • A total of 652 students have enrolled in college courses in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry.

  • Many students enrolling in college are unprepared for the rigors of higher education.

  • After graduating from high school, he enrolled in the army.

 

Notice that in British English, you often hear ‘enrol on a course’ instead of ‘enroll in a course’. But if you are taking TOEFL exams, we recommend you use ‘enroll in a course’. As the “on” version is pretty much never used in American English.

ensemble keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-sem-ble/ [aa0.n.s.aa1.m.b.ah0.l]

An ensemble is a group of musicians, dancers or actors that work together. The Beatles were an ensemble, as were Spice Girls.

entirely keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-tire-ly/ [ih0.n.t.ay1.er0.l.iy0]

Definition: completely

Example sentences:

  • That gravity is also deforming the shapes of nearby galaxies and will likely consume them entirely with time.
  • Scientists have been trying to work out whether the bright spots they found are made of ice, evaporated salts or other minerals, or something else entirely.

environmental keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-vi-ron-men-tal/ [ih0.n.v.ay2.r.ah0.n.m.eh1.n.t.ah0.l]

Definition: Relating to the natural world and the impact of human activity on its condition:

Example sentences:

  • Acid rain may have caused major environmental damage.

envision keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/en-vi-sion/ [eh0.n.v.ih1.zh.ah0.n]

Envision is a synonym of imagine and means to picture something in one’s mind. To picture something happening in the future or the creation of an image that you think exist.

The word “envision” in a sentence is commonly followed by an object.

Here are some example sentences:

  • The inventor envisioned many uses for his creation.
  • She envisioned a better life for herself.
epidermis keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/epi-der-mis/ [eh2.p.ih0.d.er1.m.ah0.s]

Definition: The outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin of vertebrates, covering the dermis

Example sentences:

epileptic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/epilep-tic/ [eh2.p.ih0.l.eh1.p.t.ih0.k]

Definition: Relating to or suffering from epilepsy

Example sentences:

  • She cannot work as she now suffers frequent, violent epileptic fits.

epitome keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/epit-o-me/ [ih0.p.ih1.t.ah0.m.iy0]

If you're talking about a typical example of something, call it the epitome. The cartoon character Garfield is the epitome of the fat, lazy, food-obsessed cat. 

equality keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/equal-i-ty/ [ih0.k.w.aa1.l.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: The state of being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities

Example sentences:

  • We also know that the labour movement has to work very hard to ensure that same equality of access and opportunity in the union. All the evidence shows, that if you want to promote social mobility and equality of opportunity, you have to start early. The government is aiming to promote racial equality.

equivalent keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/equiv-a-lent/ [ih0.k.w.ih1.v.ah0.l.ah0.n.t]

Definition: Equal in value, amount, function, meaning, etc.

Example sentences:

  • One unit is equivalent to one glass of wine

eradicate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/erad-i-cate/ [ih0.r.ae1.d.ah0.k.ey2.t]

To eradicate something is to get rid of it, to destroy it, and to kiss it goodbye. When you yank that weed up by the roots, it has been eradicated; it's not coming back.

You can also eradicate corruption, poverty, or diseases. Although there are all kinds of things to get rid of, we usually want to only eradicate the bad things. You normally wouldn’t say “I want to eradicate the extra weight I’ve put on”, you only want to describe things that are very, very bad.

Example sentences:

  • The government can play a pivotal role in eradicating poverty from society.
  • The richer countries have managed to eradicate malaria by having proper drainage so mosquitoes cannot breed.

 

erogenous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/eroge-nous/ [no ipa available]

Definition: (Of a part of the body) sensitive to sexual stimulation

Example sentences:

  • An erogenous zone is a body part (a foot, for instance) that arouses sexual curiosity and draws a man's attention to the whole female body

erratic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/er-rat-ic/ [ih0.r.ae1.t.ih0.k]

Definition: Not even or regular in pattern or movement; unpredictable

Example sentences:

  • Of course, if that kind of erratic weather pattern appeared during winter, then I guessed that a blizzard would appear.

eruption keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/erup-tion/ [iy2.r.ah1.p.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: An act or instance of erupting

Example senences:

  • Most of Mars' surface was shaped later by meteorite impacts, volcanic eruptions and erosion by dust and wind. This record has been obscured on the Earth by billions of years of rain, wind, erosion, volcanic eruptions, mountain building, and plate tectonics.

 

escarpment keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/es-carp-ment/ [eh0.s.k.aa1.r.p.m.ah0.n.t]

Definition: A long, steep slope, especially one at the edge of a plateau or separating areas of land at different heights.

Example sentences:

  • Perhaps the most striking feature is the steep escarpment that characterizes the northwest-facing edge of the Cotswold Hills

estimate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/es-ti-mate/ [eh1.s.t.ah0.m.ah0.t]

Let’s have a look at some other meanings of the word “estimate” in the noun form and example sentences.

1 (countable): a guess that you make based on the information you have about the size, amount, etc., of something. Example sentences are as follows:

  • According to government estimates, current oil reserves are 10 percent lower than they were a year ago.
  • One conservative estimate is that he stole two million dollars.
  • At a (very) rough estimate, the job will take three months.

2 (countable): a statement about how much a job will cost

  • We solicited several estimates for the project.
  • The contractor's estimate for the job seemed high.

3: an opinion or judgment about how good or bad something is

(singular)

  • He has a high estimate (means opinion, estimation) of his own abilities.

(non-countable)

  • The company's products are, by general estimate, poorly made.

 

Let’s have a look at some other meanings of the word “estimate” in the verb form and example sentences.

In the verb form, the word “estimate” means to give or form a general idea about the value, size, or cost of (something): to make an estimate of (something).

Example sentences include:

  • They estimated the distance at/as about three miles.
  • We need to estimate how much paint we'll need for the job.
  • The cost of the project has been estimated at/as about 10 million dollars.

 

 

estuary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/es-tu-ary/ [eh1.s.ch.uw0.eh2.r.iy0]

An estuary is the wide part of a river where it joins the sea

evaporative keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/evap-o-ra-tive/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Relating to or involving evaporation

Example sentences:

  • In the early 19th century, other methods of cooling were explored, and several evaporative refrigerators were patented, although it was another half-century before they made an impact on the food industry.

evict keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/evict/ [ih0.v.ih1.k.t]

To evict is to expel or eject. Think of a renter who has not paid for his apartment in months. It is likely that his landlord will evict him, or eject him from the apartment, for not paying. Evict can work in several other citations. Think of a baseball player who gets very rowdy, and tries to start a fight with an opposing player. It is likely that the umpire will evict him from the game. Past tense of evict is evicted.

  • My sister felt embarrassed because she had been evicted from her apartment for having too many animals.

evoke keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/evoke/ [ih0.v.ow1.k]

To evoke is to bring (a memory, feeling, image, etc.) into the mind. For example

  • The beach evoked memories of his childhood.

To evoke can also mean to provoke(stir up) a reaction or response, For example

  • Her remarks have evoked [=provoked] an angry response.

exacerbate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ac-er-bate/ [ih0.g.z.ae1.s.er0.b.ey2.t]

Exacerbate is a form way to say “Make things worse.” In an example, “He exacerbated the situation by complaining.” That means that they were already in a not great situation, and the situation worsened because the boy was complaining.

Example sentences using exacerbate:

  • The proposed factory shutdown would only exacerbate our unemployment problems.
  • His angry comments have exacerbated tensions in the negotiation process
  • Longstanding poverty has been exacerbated by racial divisions.
excavate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ca-vate/ [eh1.k.s.k.ah0.v.ey2.t]

When archaeologists or other people excavate a piece of land, they remove earth carefully from it and look for things such as potsbones, or buildings which are buried there, in order to discover information about the past. Here are example sentences:

  • A group of archaeologists excavated an ancient city.
  • In 1870, an archaeologist named Heinrich Schliemann excavated a site in northwestern Turkey.
exceedingly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ceed-ing-ly/ [ih0.k.s.iy1.d.ih0.ng.l.iy0]

Definition: to an extreme degree

Example sentences:

  • The camera app itself is similar to the stock Android one, and photos are taken exceedingly quickly.

excess keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-cess/ [eh1.k.s.eh2.s]

Excess is too much of something, like big-time overindulgence. It is often used in phrases like 'to excess' and "in excess of"

The phrase “to excess" refers to exceeding the proper amount or degree. For example:

  • Eating to excess makes your stomach hurt.
  • Spending to excess means you can't pay your credit card bills.

The phrase “in excess of” refers to more than. For example:

  • Avoid deposits in excess of $20,000, you will be taxed too much = This means, don’t deposit more than $20,000 at one time, as you will incur high taxes.
  • Last year's profits were in excess of one billion dollars.

Excess can also be an adjective to describe "more than is required or needed". For example:

  • Excess water spills over the top of the bathtub.
  • The oceans and ecosystems can only absorb 3.1 billion tons of carbons leaving an excess of 4.1 billion tons unable to be absorbed. The excess carbon remained in the atmosphere and increased the advancement of climate change.​

 

excessively keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ces-sive-ly/ [ih0.k.s.eh1.s.ih0.v.l.iy0]

Doing something excessively means you are doing it more than a normal amount.

  • A person who suffers from OCD may excessively wash their hands.
  • People who win the lottery typically spend their money excessively.
  • Restaurant meals are often portioned excessively, and some meals can contain as much as an entire day's worth of calories.

 

exclusively keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-clu-sive-ly/ [ih0.k.s.k.l.uw1.s.ih0.v.l.iy0]

Definition: without any others being included or involved

Example sentences:

  • The study selectively shows that the assertion that weight loss is exclusively about carbohydrate and insulin is false.

exemplary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-em-plary/ [ih0.g.z.eh1.m.p.l.er0.iy0]

Exemplary people excel at what they do and are excellent examples to others.

Something exemplary is so good that it is an example for others to follow.When something is the best it can be or reaches the highest point, it is exemplary and thus worth imitating.

The word exemplary sounds similar to “example” so remember an exemplary person sets a good example. Used in a sentence, “Todd has exemplary behavior, he never gets in trouble.”

exemplifying keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-em-pli-fy-ing/ [ih0.g.z.eh1.m.p.l.ah0.f.ay2.ih0.ng]

While exemplifying sounds like a complicated word, it is actually just clarifying something by explaining. Used in a sentence “His story was exemplifying what happened the night of the murder.

exhaust keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-haust/ [ih0.g.z.ao1.s.t]

Definition: wear out completely

Example senences:

  • Taking the high road is often a steep and winding path with lots of rocks to trip you up, and it’s sometimes painful and exhausting.
  • While these lessons and assignments are not exhaustive, they might sound exhausting.

exhibit keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-hib-it/ [ih0.g.z.ih1.b.ih0.t]

Definition: to show, make visible or apparent

Example sentences:

  • Over the years that reputation made the gallery a destination for photographers who are looking to exhibit and sell their work.

existence keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-is-tence/ [eh0.g.z.ih1.s.t.ah0.n.s]

Existence is the state of being alive or being real. Here are examples:

  • She began to doubt the existence of God.
  • It was not until 1822 that scientists learned about the existence of dinosaurs.
  • The greatest chance for the existence of extraterrestrial life is on a planet beyond our solar system.
  • The tiger may not be in existence in a few decades.

 

The phrase "in existence" is often used. It means "currently existing". Here are example sentences:

  • The tiger may not be in existence in a few decades.
  • All the oil in existence will not last the world for another century.

 

Another phrase "come into existence" is also often used. It means "begin to exist". Here is an example sentence:

  • Dinosaurs came into existence during the Mesozoic era.

 

 

Existence can also mean a particular way of living whereby, in this definition, the word existence is usually used in singular form.

Example sentences include:

  • They enjoyed a comfortable existence.
  • They pursued their meager existence in a poor rural area.
  • Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada.
exoskeleton keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-oskele-ton/ [eh2.k.s.ow0.s.k.eh1.l.ah0.t.ah0.n]

Definition: A rigid external covering for the body in some invertebrate animals, especially arthropods

Example sentences:

  • Lobsters, like all animals with exoskeletons, periodically shed their armor as they grow.

expand keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pand/ [ih0.k.s.p.ae1.n.d]

The word "expand" is a verb and means to increase in size. Companies usually expand their product lines by introducing new products to the market. Expand can also be used when talking or writing about something. This means to explain more or write in detail, elaborate giving thorough descriptions.

The word "expand" can be used with or without an object.

Example sentences using expand plus an object:

  • He has expanded his business to serve the entire state.
  • There are plans to expand the airport.
  • The police have decided to expand their investigation

 

Example sentences using expand with an object:

  • The liquid expands and contracts with changes in temperature.
  • His business has expanded to serve the entire state.
  • The coffee shop may expand into a full restaurant.

The phrasal verb,expand on/uponmeans to speak or write about (something) in a more complete or detailed way. Let’s look at the example below:

  • She declined to expand on her earlier statement.
  • Please expand (meaning elaborate) on that idea.
  • Researchers will expand upon their data in a new study
expansion keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pan-sion/ [ih0.k.s.p.ae1.n.sh.ah0.n]

Expansion means the act of becoming bigger or of making something bigger. It is the act of expanding. The word can be used be used in a noncountable or count form. Let’s look at the examples below:

Example sentences using noncountable:

  • This map shows the territorial expansion of Rome.
  • The league is undergoing expansion.
  • The hotel is undergoing expansion.
  • The Philippines needs a strong fiscal performance to keep the pace of the country's economic expansion
  • The rapid growth of American cities in the nineteenth century led to a rapid expansion of urban school systems.
  • The westward expansion of the United States is one of the defining themes of 19th-century American history

Example sentences using countable:

  • This book is an expansion of a lecture series.

The word expansion is often used with the preposition “on” or “upon”. Take a look at this example below:

  • Her remarks today were an expansion on her earlier comments regarding the budget.
expel keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pel/ [ih0.k.s.p.eh1.l]

Definition: Force out or eject (something), especially from the body

Example sentences:

  • You know how wretched it is to eat something you shouldn't have and spend the next day and a half miserably expelling it from your body

expense keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-pense/ [ih0.k.s.p.eh1.n.s]

An expense is a cost, but you can also use this word to mean the figurative cost of something. When you give one thing up in order to get something else, its cost or sacrifice is the expense of getting what you want.  

Take a look at these sentences using the word expense to represent

  • I'd like to save the time and expense [=cost] of redoing the whole thing.
  • I don't think a first-class ticket is worth the added/extra expense.

 

The word expense is often used after the preposition “at”. For example:

  • These items were imported at great/considerable/enormous expense. [=it cost a lot to import them]
  • We were able to fix the problem at very little expense. [=for very little money]

There are several phrases used with the word expense. Let’s take a look:

  • at the expense of
  • at someone’s expense
  • go to (the) expense

 

The first phrase, “at the expense of” means in a way that harms (something or someone).

Here are some example sentences:

  • Malls flourished at the expense of small stores downtown.
  • She acquired power at the expense of friendships.

The second phrase, “at someone’s expense” means paid for by someone. Take a look at the example sentences below:

  • The tour is free, but all meals are at your own expense. [=you must pay for your meals]

 

The last phrase, “go to the expense” means to spend money on something.

Ok! Let’s look at some examples:

  • Why go to the expense of installing something you'll never use?
  • She went to great expense to have this party.
exploit keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ploit/ [eh1.k.s.p.l.oy2.t]

Resources can be depleted. The verb "exploit" also means to use resources, but it also has the meaning of to use something or somebody to one’s advantage. So to exploit resources means to use resources to one’s advantage. For example

  • Humans exploited natural resources for agricultural activities, urbanization, and economic growth.

 

A way of paraphrasing this sentence using the noun “exploitation” could be the following:

  • Humans rely on the exploitation of natural resources for agricultural activities, urbanization, and economic growth.

 

Let’s try another paraphrasing exercise. Look at this sentence

  • With increasing exploitation of fossil fuels, there are many associated environmental effects like land pollution and air pollution.

 

We can change this to

  • As humans exploit fossil fuels at an increasing rate, there are many associated environmental effects like land pollution and air pollution.​

​​

Alright! Here are more example sentences with exploit and exploitation.

  • One important non-renewable resource that is rapidly exploited by humans is fossil fuels.
  • Coal is the most abundant non-renewable resource in the world, though its exploitation is contributing to its fast depletion.
  • The ruthless exploitation of the world's resources is rapidly destroying our planet.
  • Problems arising from the exploitation of natural resources include desertification and global warming.
  • Deforestation is an example of exploitation of natural resources.
exploitation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-ploita-tion/ [eh2.k.s.p.l.oy2.t.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Resources can be depleted. The verb "exploit" also means to use resources, but it also has the meaning of to use something or somebody to one’s advantage. So to exploit resources means to use resources to one’s advantage. For example

  • Humans exploited natural resources for agricultural activities, urbanization, and economic growth.

 

A way of paraphrasing this sentence using the noun “exploitation” could be the following:

  • Humans rely on the exploitation of natural resources for agricultural activities, urbanization, and economic growth.

 

Let’s try another paraphrasing exercise. Look at this sentence

  • With increasing exploitation of fossil fuels, there are many associated environmental effects like land pollution and air pollution.

 

We can change this to

  • As humans exploit fossil fuels at an increasing rate, there are many associated environmental effects like land pollution and air pollution.​

​​

Alright! Here are more example sentences with exploit and exploitation.

  • One important non-renewable resource that is rapidly exploited by humans is fossil fuels.
  • Coal is the most abundant non-renewable resource in the world, though its exploitation is contributing to its fast depletion.
  • The ruthless exploitation of the world's resources is rapidly destroying our planet.
  • Problems arising from the exploitation of natural resources include desertification and global warming.
  • Deforestation is an example of exploitation of natural resources.
export keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-port/ [eh1.k.s.p.ao0.r.t]

Definition: sell or transfer abroad; commodities (goods or services) sold to a foreign country

Example sentences:

  • It also said Japan as a whole was experiencing a decrease in consumer spending due to a decline in real incomes and exports.
  • The country's economy has suffered because of falling prices for its commodity exports.

extinct keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-tinct/ [ih0.k.s.t.ih1.ng.k.t]

When a species went/became extinct, it means it no longer exists. Here are some usages:

  • Dinosaurs are extinct animals.
  • Dinosaurs went extinct about 65 million years ago.
  • Polar bears may become extinct due to global warming.
  • Western Black Rhinoceros went extinct in 2011 = The Western black rhino was declared extinct in 2011

In geology, extinct means a volcano is no longer active. For example

  • an extinct volcano

 

Okay! The noun ‘extinction’ obvious means the state of becoming extinct. Let’s try paraphrase this sentence using ‘extinction’.

  • Polar bears may become extinct due to global warming.

Here is the paraphrased version

  • Global warming might lead to the extinction of polar bears.

 

Let try another one

  • Many animals went extinct as human encroached on natural habitats.

Here is my paraphrased version

  • Human encroachments on natural habitats led to mass extinctions of species.

 

Here! Notice that extinction is plural because we are talking about many species becoming extinct.

 

Okay! Let’s look at some collocations often used with ‘extinct’ and ‘extinction’. To name a few:

  • in the danger of becoming extinct = in the danger of extinction
  • on the brink of becoming extinct = on the brink of extinction
  • Be headed for extinction = race toward extinction
  • Put __ at risk of extinction

 

Here are examples

  • Several bird species are on the brink of extinction.
  • Giraffes are in the danger of extinction.
  • The tiger is headed for extinction because of development and hunting.
  • The introduction of foxes put many native species at risk of extinction.
extinguish keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ex-tin-guish/ [ih0.k.s.t.ih1.ng.g.w.ih0.sh]

To extinguish something means to put an end to it, and get rid of it completely.

  • Water can extinguish a fire.
  • Nasty smells can extinguish your appetite

You can also use the word extinguish to describe things that are abstract, for example,

  • You and your sister need to extinguish this fight before it gets out of control.

 

eyesore keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/eye-sore/ [ay1.s.ao2.r]

Definition: A thing that is very ugly, especially a building

Example sentences:

  • With many of the old eyesores now disappearing from sight more effort will be called for to really get the town looking its best for the spring, summer and autumn.

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