TOEFL® Vocabulary List

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Words that start with v
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vaccination keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vac-ci-na-tion/ [v.ae0.k.s.ah0.n.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: (NOUN) vaccinate

Example sentences:

  • There are also some major infectious diseases for which vaccinations have not been developed. Without vaccination, it can take days or weeks to acquire immunity to a particular disease.

vague keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vague/ [v.ey1.g]

Definition: not clear; ambiguous

Example sentences:

  • My parents are vague about it in their accounts

validity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/va-lid-i-ty/ [v.ah0.l.ih1.d.ih0.t.iy0]

The noun validity means the quality of being real or correct or the state of being acceptable according to the law

Example sentences:

  • The validity of the contract/document is being questioned.
  • Scientists questioned the validity of the findings.
  • Have you had the judge check the validity of the signature?
vanishing keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/van-ish-ing/ [v.ae1.n.ih0.sh.ih0.ng]

Definition: going out of sight

Example sentences:

  • The Indian elephant is a vanishing species that needs a protected habitat to survive.
  • While a photograph is a static record of a specific moment, the pigment is a symbol of that specific moment vanishing.

 

vaporize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/va-por-ize/ [v.ey1.p.er0.ay2.z]

The verb ‘vaporize ’means to change into vapor or to cause something to change into vapor.  For example:

  • Boiling water vaporizes and rises into the atmosphere.
  • Heat is used to vaporize a liquid.
varied keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/var-ied/ [v.eh1.r.iy0.d]
ondemand_video

"Varied" is an adjective. Think of "varied" as describing something that has many altered forms or sth. that has been changed often. For example,

  • There are many varied ideas on how to improve the economy.
  • The artist has painted in varied styles as his interests have changed over the years.
  • A varied workout routine will keep you from getting bored.

Also, we can say something is varied when it covers a wide range of things. For example,

  • We try to eat a more varied diet.
  • She has varied [=diverse, various] interests.

 

 

 

various keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/var-i-ous/ [v.eh1.r.iy0.ah0.s]
ondemand_video

Various is an adjective that describes several different kinds of things, like a candy shop that is home to various sweets, from lollipops to chocolate fudge.

Or if you have various interests, you might love hip hop, movies from the 1940s, fixing cars, and reading fashion magazines.

Various can convey the meaning of “numerous” or “many”, like when you say, "Various people want to get involved with the park clean-up." This means a lot of people want to help.

 

varying keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vary-ing/ [v.eh1.r.iy0.ih0.ng]
ondemand_video

Okay! A lot of people are confused about the difference between various and varying.

"Various" means "different" in the idea of more than one kind of thing.

On the other hand, "varying" means "different aspects or features" of the same kind of thing.

 

Here are examples using the word varying,

  • Dress in layers so that you will be comfortable in varying room temperatures.
  • Clients may have varying experience. There is a spectrum ranging from inexperienced, first time clients to highly experienced, seasoned clients.
vast keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vast/ [v.ae1.s.t]

We often use "vast" to describe something that is large by distanceThings that are described as vast include oceans, seas, deserts, and the surface of the moon. For example

  • vast desert lay before us. 
  • I would be very scared to be lost in the vast sea

The following collocations are often used

  • the vast majority of something
  • vast amounts of something = enormous amount of something = immense amount of something​​
  • a vast difference between

Example sentences:

  • She has a vast amount of knowledge on this subject.
  • Medical students are required to learn and retain vast amounts of knowledge on the path to becoming physicians;
  • A large shopping center would require a vast amount of space
  • The policy is supported by the vast majority of citizens.
  • The vast majority of people in Australia live in big cities.
  • In the vast majority of cases, lung cancer is caused by smoking.
  • There is a vast difference between them.
velocity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ve-loc-i-ty/ [v.ah0.l.aa1.s.ah0.t.iy0]

Definition: speed

Example sentences:

  • If an object is moving in one direction without a force acting on it, then it continues to move in that direction with a constant velocity.

venomous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ven-omous/ [v.eh1.n.ah0.m.ah0.s]

Definition: (Of an animal, especially a snake) secreting venom; capable of injecting venom by means of a bite or sting

Example sentences:

  • Anytime you receive a bite from a venomous snake, it's a very dangerous encounter

ventricle keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ven-tri-cle/ [no ipa available]

Definition: Each of the four connected fluid-filled cavities in the centre of the brain.

Example sentences:

  • There was no definite plane between the tumor and the floor of the fourth ventricle.

vestigial keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ves-ti-gial/ [v.ah0.s.t.ih1.jh.iy0.ah0.l]

Definition: (Of an organ or part of the body) degenerate, rudimentary, or atrophied, having become functionless in the course of evolution:

Example sentences:

  • The belief that wisdom teeth are vestigial organs that lack a function in the body (as was previously believed for the appendix), is less common today but still evident.

vibrant keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vi-brant/ [v.ay1.b.r.ah0.n.t]

Definition: lively; full of action; bright

Example sentences:

  • Music, rhythm and dance are the beating heart of two vibrant exhibitions in Paris.
  • Her vibrant personality made her well liked by everyone.

vibration keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vi-bra-tion/ [v.ay0.b.r.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Definition: An oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose equilibrium has been disturbed or of an electromagnetic wave

Example sentences:

  • In conventional superconductors, vibrations of atoms induce electrons, which normally repel each other, to form pairs

vicinity keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vicin-i-ty/ [v.ah0.s.ih1.n.ah0.t.iy0]

If something is in your vicinity, it's in the surrounding area or nearby region — it's in the neighborhood, so to speak. If there's a garbage dump in your vicinity, you'll certainly smell it. When you go on vacation, you may ask the hotel attendant “Is there a bakery in the vicinity?”

Example sentences using the noun vicinity:

  • She lives in Los Angeles, or somewhere in that/the vicinity. (meaning somewhere near there)
  • There were a hundred or so hotels in the vicinity of the railway station.

in the vicinity of” is often used to describe in the area that is close to (a place) or close to or around (an amount). Examples:

  • He lives in the general/immediate vicinity of the school.
  • There is no hospital in the immediate vicinity.
visibly keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vis-i-bly/ [v.ih1.z.ah0.b.l.iy0]

Definition: can be seen

Example sentences:

  • He was visibly shaken, and had a hard time walking.
  • Throughout the night he's been visibly holding back a well of emotion, puffing out his cheeks with sighs and fanning his face during commercial breaks.

visualize keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vi-su-al-ize/ [v.ih1.zh.w.ah0.l.ay2.z]

Visualize means to create a mental picture.

Here are example sentences:

  • She tried to visualize the scene he was describing.
  • I can't visualize him as a parent.

 

volatile keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/volatile/ [v.aa1.l.ah0.t.ah0.l]

Definition: (Of a substance) easily evaporated at normal temperatures

Example senences:

  • Even small amounts of gasoline or other volatile fuels or solvents mixed with kerosene can substantially increase the risk of a fire or an explosion.

voltage keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/volt-age/ [v.ow1.l.t.ah0.jh]

Definition: An electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts

Example sentences:

  • The plasma screen consists of tiny gas plasma cells that are charged at exact electrical voltages to make a picture. Then measure the voltage and current by attaching your volt meter to the two pieces of metal.

vaccine keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vac-cine/ [v.ae2.k.s.iy1.n]

Definition: An antigenic substance prepared from the causative agent of a disease or a synthetic substitute, used to provide immunity against one or several diseases

Example sentences:

  • These children show few adverse reactions to routine vaccinations, including live vaccines. There is no vaccine against HIV infection.

valid keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/valid/ [v.ae1.l.ih0.d]

A valid argument is one that is well-grounded in fact, law or logic. Something is valid when it can be supported or backed-up, or if it is functional.  In a legal context, valid means that something is binding or actionable: “At the time of the accident his license was no longer valid, so they impounded his car.”

Here are some examples using the word valid:

  • There is no valid reason to proceed with the change.
  • Her objections/conclusions were completely valid.
  • You make a valid point.
  • You must present valid identification.
  • Their marriage is not legally valid.
  • Is your passport still valid? ​
  • Is the contract legally valid?
valve keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/valve/ [v.ae1.l.v]

Definition: A device for controlling the passage of fluid through a pipe or duct, especially an automatic device allowing movement in one direction only:

Example sentences:

  • The system is regulated by a height control valve which allows fluid to move between spheres to keep the car level.

vapor keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/va-por/ [v.ey1.p.er0]

When a liquid like water becomes a visible, gas-like substance floating in the air, it's a vapor. Examples of vapor are fog and mist.

 

variation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vari-a-tion/ [v.eh2.r.iy0.ey1.sh.ah0.n]
ondemand_video

Variation means a change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level. If we talk about variations from accepted standards, we often talk about important or critical things that need our attention. The word variation is used with the preposition ‘in’. For example,

  • A variation in a heartbeat pattern can tell a doctor that a heart attack might be imminent.
  • The variation in weather temperatures from what is expected indicates that our climate is changing due to global warming.
  • The more genes you look at, the more variation you’ll find,
  • Some scientists estimate height is influenced by as many as 93,000 genetic variations.
variety keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/va-ri-ety/ [v.er0.ay1.ah0.t.iy0]
ondemand_video

Variety is a noun that is a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. For example, if you got a variety pack of chocolates, you would get a pack of chocolates that has milk chocolate, dark chocolate, almond chocolate, etc.

The phrase ‘a variety of’ or ‘a great/wide variety of’ is often used. Here are example sentences:

  • This shopping center offers a variety of leisure activities
  • Our national park is home to a variety of wildlife including birds and types of bats.
  • Students are offered a wide variety of courses in this department.
  • People attend college for a variety of reasons.

 

Variety can also describe different things that are classified under one category or type. For example,

  • There are fifty varieties of fish.
  • 7,500 varieties of apples are grown throughout the world.
  • It is important for farmers to understand what varieties of crops can grow in different seasons.

 

Finally, you might have heard the word ”a variety show”. A variety show is an entertainment that includes a number of different and unrelated acts, like fire eaters, string bands, comedians, lounge singers, and spoon players.

 

vary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vary/ [v.eh1.r.iy0]
ondemand_video

The verb "varycan be used as a transitive or intransitive verb. For those who are not familiar with these terms: transitive means with an object and intransitive means without an object. When it is used as a transitive verb, it means to change something. Often we use the verb vary when you're talking about changing up our usual routine. For example,

  • If your schedule changes at work, you might have to vary your sleeping habits.
  • I try to vary my diet by eating different kinds of foods.

"Vary" however is more often used as an intransitive verbto express the meaning “to be different”.  Here, the preposition “from” is often used with ‘vary’. Let’s look at two patterns using the phrase ‘vary from’.

 

The first one is

[A] vary/varies from [B] to [B]

It means [A] is different for each [B]. Here are example sentences:

  • The effects of this medicine vary from person to person.
  • The shape of the moon varies from day to day.
  • The textbooks vary from school to school.

 

The second pattern is

[A] vary/varies from [B] to [C]

It means sometimes [A] is [B], and sometimes [A] is [C]. Look at the following examples:

  • The weather alternatively varies from rainy to sunny in the summer.
  • Reviews of the new movie vary from positive to negative.
  • Colors vary from light to dark.
  • This music varies from loud to soft and fast to slow.
  • His mood varies from happy to sad depending on the time of day.

 

Vary is also often used with the preposition "inwhen things are different in size, amount, degree, but are still part of the same general class. Here are examples:

  • Subspecies vary considerably in size
  • Diamonds vary in size.
  • Chromosomes vary in number and shape among living things
vassal keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vas-sal/ [v.ae1.s.ah0.l]

Vassals are labourers, or workers who worked in the fields or on land that was not owned by them, but owned by lords. In Medieval times, there were far more vassals than lords, whilst the lords had most of the wealth and power.In Medieval times, vassals were better off than peasants, but worse off than lords.

vegetation keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/veg-e-ta-tion/ [v.eh2.jh.ah0.t.ey1.sh.ah0.n]

Plants, trees, and flowers can be referred to as vegetation.

venom keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ven-om/ [v.eh1.n.ah0.m]

Definition: A poisonous substance secreted by animals such as snakes, spiders, and scorpions and typically injected into prey or aggressors by biting or stinging

Example sentences:

  • Snake venoms have different effects.

ventilator keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ven-ti-la-tor/ [v.eh1.n.t.ih0.l.ey2.t.er0]

Definition: An appliance for artificial respiration; a respirator.

Example sentences:

  • Six patients reported symptomatic improvement, including three who were weaned off the mechanical ventilator.

vertebrate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/ver-te-brate/ [v.er1.t.ah0.b.r.ey2.t]

Definition: An animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes

Example sentences:

  • For that reason the earliest terrestrial vertebrates did not come equipped with an occiput, as we understand the term.

viable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vi-able (noun: vi-a-bil-i-ty)/ [no ipa available]

Definition: (Of a plant, animal, or cell) capable of surviving or living successfully, especially under particular environmental conditions:

Example sentences:

  • In addition, their long shelf life eventually might translate into a reduced number of viable cells. The company says the rationalisation is necessary in order to secure the firm's viability.

vibrate keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vi-brate/ [v.ay1.b.r.ey0.t]

Definition: Move continuously and rapidly to and from

Example sentences:

  • Neils Bohr's model of the atom, set forth in a series of papers in 1913, described atoms as constantly in motion, continuously vibrating, and moving. In conventional superconductors, vibrations of atoms induce electrons, which normally repel each other, to form pairs

viceroyalty keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/viceroy-al-ty/ [no ipa available]

Definition: The office, position, or authority of a viceroy.

Example sentences:

  • Beginning in the second half of the eighteenth century, the population in the Peruvian viceroyalty began to slowly increase after epidemics brought by the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century had killed thousands of people. The authors explain how the Bourbon reforms of the late eighteenth century transformed the viceroyalty of New Spain into one of the most efficient tax regimes in colonial history

vigorous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vig-or-ous/ [v.ih1.g.er0.ah0.s]

Definition: Strong, healthy, and full of energy:

Example sentences:

  • The hunger I felt was the kind you could only get after using up large amounts of energy on vigorous physical activity.
  • Her vigorous defense of the case impressed everyone.

visionary keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vi-sion-ary/ [v.ih1.zh.ah0.n.eh2.r.iy0]

As a noun, a visionary is a person with unusual powers of insight, or a person with fanciful expectations with little regard for what is possible. Normally, inventors, artists and musicians are considered visionaries because they think outside the box. Visionaries have a big, grand idea of something that hasn’t been done before and they do it. Many people consider Michael Jackson a visionary of music, and Picasso a visionary of art.

viviparous keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vi-vip-a-rous/ [v.ay0.v.ih1.p.er0.ah0.s]

Viviparous animals are animals that give birth to young ones instead of laying eggs. This is the reproductive method of mammals except monotremes, marine mammals such as whales, dolphins, and sea otters

volcanic keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vol-canic/ [v.aa0.l.k.ae1.n.ih0.k]

Definition: Relating to or produced by a volcano or volcanoes.

Example sentences:

  • More than 80 Vesuvius eruptions were listed in a recent worldwide directory of volcanic activity.

vulnerable keyboard_arrow_downkeyboard_arrow_up
/vul-ner-a-ble/ [v.ah1.l.n.er0.ah0.b.ah0.l]

Definition: Exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally

Example senences:

  • Small fish are vulnerable to predators.

 

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