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Definition: (NOUN) vaccinate
- There are also some major infectious diseases for which vaccinations have not been developed. Without vaccination, it can take days or weeks to acquire immunity to a particular disease.
Definition: not clear; ambiguous
- My parents are vague about it in their accounts
The noun validity means the quality of being real or correct or the state of being acceptable according to the law
- The validity of the contract/document is being questioned.
- Scientists questioned the validity of the findings.
- Have you had the judge check the validity of the signature?
Definition: going out of sight
- The Indian elephant is a vanishing species that needs a protected habitat to survive.
- While a photograph is a static record of a specific moment, the pigment is a symbol of that specific moment vanishing.
The verb ‘vaporize ’means to change into vapor or to cause something to change into vapor. For example:
- Boiling water vaporizes and rises into the atmosphere.
- Heat is used to vaporize a liquid.
"Varied" is an adjective. Think of "varied" as describing something that has many altered forms or sth. that has been changed often. For example,
- There are many varied ideas on how to improve the economy.
- The artist has painted in varied styles as his interests have changed over the years.
- A varied workout routine will keep you from getting bored.
Also, we can say something is varied when it covers a wide range of things. For example,
- We try to eat a more varied diet.
- She has varied [=diverse, various] interests.
Various is an adjective that describes several different kinds of things, like a candy shop that is home to various sweets, from lollipops to chocolate fudge.
Or if you have various interests, you might love hip hop, movies from the 1940s, fixing cars, and reading fashion magazines.
Various can convey the meaning of “numerous” or “many”, like when you say, "Various people want to get involved with the park clean-up." This means a lot of people want to help.
Okay! A lot of people are confused about the difference between various and varying.
"Various" means "different" in the idea of more than one kind of thing.
On the other hand, "varying" means "different aspects or features" of the same kind of thing.
Here are examples using the word varying,
- Dress in layers so that you will be comfortable in varying room temperatures.
- Clients may have varying experience. There is a spectrum ranging from inexperienced, first time clients to highly experienced, seasoned clients.
We often use "vast" to describe something that is large by distance. Things that are described as vast include oceans, seas, deserts, and the surface of the moon. For example
- A vast desert lay before us.
- I would be very scared to be lost in the vast sea
The following collocations are often used
- the vast majority of something
- vast amounts of something = enormous amount of something = immense amount of something
- a vast difference between
- She has a vast amount of knowledge on this subject.
- Medical students are required to learn and retain vast amounts of knowledge on the path to becoming physicians;
- A large shopping center would require a vast amount of space
- The policy is supported by the vast majority of citizens.
- The vast majority of people in Australia live in big cities.
- In the vast majority of cases, lung cancer is caused by smoking.
- There is a vast difference between them.
- If an object is moving in one direction without a force acting on it, then it continues to move in that direction with a constant velocity.
Definition: (Of an animal, especially a snake) secreting venom; capable of injecting venom by means of a bite or sting
- Anytime you receive a bite from a venomous snake, it's a very dangerous encounter
/ven-tri-cle/ [no ipa available]
Definition: Each of the four connected fluid-filled cavities in the centre of the brain.
- There was no definite plane between the tumor and the floor of the fourth ventricle.
Definition: (Of an organ or part of the body) degenerate, rudimentary, or atrophied, having become functionless in the course of evolution:
- The belief that wisdom teeth are vestigial organs that lack a function in the body (as was previously believed for the appendix), is less common today but still evident.
Definition: lively; full of action; bright
- Music, rhythm and dance are the beating heart of two vibrant exhibitions in Paris.
- Her vibrant personality made her well liked by everyone.
Definition: An oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose equilibrium has been disturbed or of an electromagnetic wave
- In conventional superconductors, vibrations of atoms induce electrons, which normally repel each other, to form pairs
If something is in your vicinity, it's in the surrounding area or nearby region — it's in the neighborhood, so to speak. If there's a garbage dump in your vicinity, you'll certainly smell it. When you go on vacation, you may ask the hotel attendant “Is there a bakery in the vicinity?”
Example sentences using the noun vicinity:
- She lives in Los Angeles, or somewhere in that/the vicinity. (meaning somewhere near there)
- There were a hundred or so hotels in the vicinity of the railway station.
“in the vicinity of” is often used to describe in the area that is close to (a place) or close to or around (an amount). Examples:
- He lives in the general/immediate vicinity of the school.
- There is no hospital in the immediate vicinity.
Definition: can be seen
- He was visibly shaken, and had a hard time walking.
- Throughout the night he's been visibly holding back a well of emotion, puffing out his cheeks with sighs and fanning his face during commercial breaks.
Visualize means to create a mental picture.
Here are example sentences:
- She tried to visualize the scene he was describing.
- I can't visualize him as a parent.
Definition: (Of a substance) easily evaporated at normal temperatures
- Even small amounts of gasoline or other volatile fuels or solvents mixed with kerosene can substantially increase the risk of a fire or an explosion.
Definition: An electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts
- The plasma screen consists of tiny gas plasma cells that are charged at exact electrical voltages to make a picture. Then measure the voltage and current by attaching your volt meter to the two pieces of metal.
Definition: An antigenic substance prepared from the causative agent of a disease or a synthetic substitute, used to provide immunity against one or several diseases
- These children show few adverse reactions to routine vaccinations, including live vaccines. There is no vaccine against HIV infection.
A valid argument is one that is well-grounded in fact, law or logic. Something is valid when it can be supported or backed-up, or if it is functional. In a legal context, valid means that something is binding or actionable: “At the time of the accident his license was no longer valid, so they impounded his car.”
Here are some examples using the word valid:
- There is no valid reason to proceed with the change.
- Her objections/conclusions were completely valid.
- You make a valid point.
- You must present valid identification.
- Their marriage is not legally valid.
- Is your passport still valid?
- Is the contract legally valid?
Definition: A device for controlling the passage of fluid through a pipe or duct, especially an automatic device allowing movement in one direction only:
- The system is regulated by a height control valve which allows fluid to move between spheres to keep the car level.
When a liquid like water becomes a visible, gas-like substance floating in the air, it's a vapor. Examples of vapor are fog and mist.
Variation means a change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level. If we talk about variations from accepted standards, we often talk about important or critical things that need our attention. The word variation is used with the preposition ‘in’. For example,
- A variation in a heartbeat pattern can tell a doctor that a heart attack might be imminent.
- The variation in weather temperatures from what is expected indicates that our climate is changing due to global warming.
- The more genes you look at, the more variation you’ll find,
- Some scientists estimate height is influenced by as many as 93,000 genetic variations.
Variety is a noun that is a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. For example, if you got a variety pack of chocolates, you would get a pack of chocolates that has milk chocolate, dark chocolate, almond chocolate, etc.
The phrase ‘a variety of’ or ‘a great/wide variety of’ is often used. Here are example sentences:
- This shopping center offers a variety of leisure activities
- Our national park is home to a variety of wildlife including birds and types of bats.
- Students are offered a wide variety of courses in this department.
- People attend college for a variety of reasons.
Variety can also describe different things that are classified under one category or type. For example,
- There are fifty varieties of fish.
- 7,500 varieties of apples are grown throughout the world.
- It is important for farmers to understand what varieties of crops can grow in different seasons.
Finally, you might have heard the word ”a variety show”. A variety show is an entertainment that includes a number of different and unrelated acts, like fire eaters, string bands, comedians, lounge singers, and spoon players.
The verb "vary" can be used as a transitive or intransitive verb. For those who are not familiar with these terms: transitive means with an object and intransitive means without an object. When it is used as a transitive verb, it means to change something. Often we use the verb vary when you're talking about changing up our usual routine. For example,
- If your schedule changes at work, you might have to vary your sleeping habits.
- I try to vary my diet by eating different kinds of foods.
"Vary" however is more often used as an intransitive verb, to express the meaning “to be different”. Here, the preposition “from” is often used with ‘vary’. Let’s look at two patterns using the phrase ‘vary from’.
The first one is
[A] vary/varies from [B] to [B]
It means [A] is different for each [B]. Here are example sentences:
- The effects of this medicine vary from person to person.
- The shape of the moon varies from day to day.
- The textbooks vary from school to school.
The second pattern is
[A] vary/varies from [B] to [C]
It means sometimes [A] is [B], and sometimes [A] is [C]. Look at the following examples:
- The weather alternatively varies from rainy to sunny in the summer.
- Reviews of the new movie vary from positive to negative.
- Colors vary from light to dark.
- This music varies from loud to soft and fast to slow.
- His mood varies from happy to sad depending on the time of day.
Vary is also often used with the preposition "in" when things are different in size, amount, degree, but are still part of the same general class. Here are examples:
- Subspecies vary considerably in size
- Diamonds vary in size.
- Chromosomes vary in number and shape among living things
Vassals are labourers, or workers who worked in the fields or on land that was not owned by them, but owned by lords. In Medieval times, there were far more vassals than lords, whilst the lords had most of the wealth and power.In Medieval times, vassals were better off than peasants, but worse off than lords.
Plants, trees, and flowers can be referred to as vegetation.
Definition: A poisonous substance secreted by animals such as snakes, spiders, and scorpions and typically injected into prey or aggressors by biting or stinging
- Snake venoms have different effects.
Definition: An appliance for artificial respiration; a respirator.
- Six patients reported symptomatic improvement, including three who were weaned off the mechanical ventilator.
Definition: An animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes
- For that reason the earliest terrestrial vertebrates did not come equipped with an occiput, as we understand the term.
/vi-able (noun: vi-a-bil-i-ty)/ [no ipa available]
Definition: (Of a plant, animal, or cell) capable of surviving or living successfully, especially under particular environmental conditions:
- In addition, their long shelf life eventually might translate into a reduced number of viable cells. The company says the rationalisation is necessary in order to secure the firm's viability.
Definition: Move continuously and rapidly to and from
- Neils Bohr's model of the atom, set forth in a series of papers in 1913, described atoms as constantly in motion, continuously vibrating, and moving. In conventional superconductors, vibrations of atoms induce electrons, which normally repel each other, to form pairs
/viceroy-al-ty/ [no ipa available]
Definition: The office, position, or authority of a viceroy.
- Beginning in the second half of the eighteenth century, the population in the Peruvian viceroyalty began to slowly increase after epidemics brought by the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century had killed thousands of people. The authors explain how the Bourbon reforms of the late eighteenth century transformed the viceroyalty of New Spain into one of the most efficient tax regimes in colonial history
Definition: Strong, healthy, and full of energy:
- The hunger I felt was the kind you could only get after using up large amounts of energy on vigorous physical activity.
- Her vigorous defense of the case impressed everyone.
As a noun, a visionary is a person with unusual powers of insight, or a person with fanciful expectations with little regard for what is possible. Normally, inventors, artists and musicians are considered visionaries because they think outside the box. Visionaries have a big, grand idea of something that hasn’t been done before and they do it. Many people consider Michael Jackson a visionary of music, and Picasso a visionary of art.
Viviparous animals are animals that give birth to young ones instead of laying eggs. This is the reproductive method of mammals except monotremes, marine mammals such as whales, dolphins, and sea otters
Definition: Relating to or produced by a volcano or volcanoes.
- More than 80 Vesuvius eruptions were listed in a recent worldwide directory of volcanic activity.
Definition: Exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally
- Small fish are vulnerable to predators.