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多益閱讀Part5 - 文法題 - 關於被動式考法

Ron Ross October 12th, 2021

多益閱讀測驗中,最愛出現的考題的除了關係代名詞外,就是各種時態的被動式了,每次考試大概會有1題,最多會有3題,今天就讓我們來分析下如何分析這樣的題型八!

首先我們先必須瞭解到的是一個英文句子一定有主詞+動詞,在分析一個句子的時候我們必須先看看主詞是什麼,然後再看看動詞是什麼,通常關於主動被動的考題中,會把動詞的地方挖空,然後放在出題選項內,讓考生去選擇, 我們來看看下方這個題目:

Mr. Bently ___ by the procurement department, where he is in charge of buying supplies for the textile company.
(a) was recruited
(b) is recruiting
(c) to recruit
(d) recruits

這句子中主詞是Mr. Bently,動詞是跟recruit有關,動詞後面接by the procurment department,Recruit的意思是"雇用" ,用法為: 公司 + recruit + 人,在這題中主詞是Mr. Bently,所以我們可以知道這句是由被動方式來寫,所以答案選(a), 我們在看另外一個題目:

Some service fees _______ whenever clients withdraw money from the account.
(a) will be charging
(b) have charged
(c) charge
(d) will be charged

這句子中主詞是Some service fees,動詞是跟chage有關,Charge的意思是"收取費用" ,用法為: 收取費用的人事物 + charge+ 人 + 費用 + for + 收取費用的內容,例如: "The museum charges me $20 for admission" or "The museum charges $20 for admission",在這題中主詞是Some service fees,所以我們可以知道這句是由被動方式來寫,所以答案選(d),如果用主動方式來寫的話,句子可以寫成像這樣:
The bank will charge clients service fees whenever clients withdraw money from the account.
The bank will charge service fees whenever clients withdraw money from the account.

如果說你對如何將主動轉成被動的文法觀念還不熟系的話,那就來看看下面的解說 , 簡單來說,要將主動語態變成被動語態需要: (1) 將句中的主詞和受詞位置調換。 (2) 動詞形式變成 be 動詞+過去分詞 (p.p.)。 (3) 在動作施做者前加上一個 by。 們來看一個例子:

Apple will discontinue iMac Pro next year.
在這句話裡,「Apple」為主詞,「iMac Pro為受詞。

當我們用被動式來寫的話呢,句子就變成
iMac Pro will be discontinued by Apple next year.

我們發現「iMac Pro」被挪到了句首,中間連接兩者的動詞形態變成:be 動詞+過去分詞 (p.p.), Apple被挪到句尾,而且前面接了一個 by(意指「被;由」)。

通常被動式寫法我們可以省略"by+人"這邊,所以句子就變成
iMac Pro will be discontinued by Apple next year.

了解主動跟被動文意、句構上的差別後, 以下我們由「時態」為主,來介紹幾種常用的變化被動句型:

現在簡單式被動:
Mr. Anderson hires an accountant.
An accountant is hired by Mr. Anderson.

過去簡單式被動:
Mr. Anderson hired an accountant last week.
An accountant was hired by Mr. Anderson last week.

未來簡單式被動:
Regional managers will hold a meeting to discuss the new marketing strategies next week.
A meeting will be held next week by regional managers to discuss the new marketing strategies.

同理,當時態來到「進行式」時,注意被動式基本結構會融入進行式的形式(be 動詞 + 現在分詞),變成:「be 動詞 + being + 過去分詞」。

現在進行式被動:
The region managers meet regularly with the staff to ensure that they are performing procedures correctly.
The region managers meet regularly with the staff to ensure that procedures are being performed correctly.

過去進行式被動:
Ross was asking a question.
A question was being asked by Ross.

最後,當時態來到「完成式」時,注意被動式基本結構也會融入完成式的形式(have / has / had + 過去分詞),變成:「have / has / had + been + 過去分詞」

現在完成式被動:
John has asked a question.(John 已經問了一個問題。)
A question has been asked by John.(一個問題已經被 John 問了。)

過去完成式被動:
John had asked a question.(John 當時已經問了一個問題。)
A question had been asked by John.(一個問題當時已經被 John 問了。)

另外,除了時態上的被動式之外,助動詞也是有被動式喔!

用常見的助動詞 can 舉個例子:
John can ask a question.(John 可以問一個問題。)
A question can be asked by John.(一個問題可以被 John 問。)

 
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